Abstract: to Sri Lanka with the recent trend of

Abstract: Human Made wars are the worst way of destruction. Other than wars,
disasters makes the destruction on property and lives. Careful disaster
management is important to mitigate that issue is very relevant to Sri Lanka
with the recent trend of exponential rise in Disasters. Here it is conclusive
that number of Disaster related studies respect to the technological
development are carried out in the recent past. Disaster identification systems
and disaster classification systems are also developed by numerous contributors
to take the subjective area developed. Utilization on Disaster ethics and
response utilization with humanitarian activities is required to address the
framework development and creating proactive solutions. Theoretical development
in Evaluating Disaster Management process, which can be generalized to use in
any circumstance is a future research requirement for the development of the
subject area.

Keywords:  Disaster Management; Framework Development;
Disaster Ethics; Disaster Response; Disaster Technology

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1.   
Introduction

Over the ten year
period from 2005 to 2014 1.5 billion public have been affected by disasters in
the world, 23 million people have been made homeless, 1.4 million have been
injured and over 700,000 people have lost their lives due to disasters. The
total economic loss due to disasters in these ten years is $1.3 trillion (Sendai
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2015).
In order to identify the current knowledge and studies carried out around
Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current disaster management
system as per the obtainability, literature was divided in to six topics:
Information Systems use to analyze disasters, Disaster occurrence and response,
Solution creation on disasters, Humanitarian involvement in disaster
management, Vulnerability to Disasters | Floods in Sri Lankan context and
Disaster recovery.
Knowledge identifying on creation and continuation of Disaster Management
framework as well as modifying is where the mainly literature review is focused
on.

2.     
Literature Review

2.1
Information Systems use to analyse Disasters

According to the Mathias Leidig’s and
Richard Teeuw’s Research on nature of the freely available geospatial software
as well as the information systems in the background of disaster management,
the custom of geospatial statistics are crucial in effective disaster
management, from preparedness to retort and reclamation. However, to sort
resourceful use of available data and information – before, during and after a
disaster – dependable software is mandatory. The software applications observed
in this paper range from Geographical Information Systems, to the handling of
remotely detected images, crowd-source plotting, web solicitations and content
organization systems. Trends and defies are well-thought-out, and guiding
principle are given, to foster and reassure the endowment of information by
Freeware and Open Source Software. Unrestricted geoinformatics can help to
increase the limited financial, scientific and manpower resources that many
organizations face, providing a viable input to analytical deeds (Mathias
Leidig, 2015). 

Milan Erdelj’s, Michal Krol’s and Enrico
Natalizio’s work identifies the role of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) as well
as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in the circumstance of natural disaster
management. Key solicitations of arrangements involving WSN and UAV are
categorized according to the disaster management segment, and an analysis of
pertinent research deeds is provided alongside the research and development
experiments that still stay unsolved (Milan Erdelj, 2017). The main purposes of
these works was to present technical results useful to improve the safety of
people, and thrust the state of the art one step forward in the demarcation of
a comprehensive disaster management system

Also when it comes to Landslides, Vu Van
Khoa’s and Shigeru Takayama’s paper describes a structure that customs a
wireless sensor network (WSN) to observe landslide tragedies in distant areas.
The system contains of 3 subsystems named Local Sensing Node Network System
(LSNNS), the Cloud System (CS), and the Host System (HS). To observe the field
position and state of the nodules remotely, they fixed up an appropriate
command scheme in which the HS meets numerous data kinds in categories: node
status, node data, LSNNS status, and LSNNS data. Equal lists are obtainable to
achieve the HS and CS. Apiece data type subsidizes to 1 or 2 vital analyses in
shaping an impermanent situation. Experiments are steered to scrutinize some
highlighted data for landslide monitoring application, including node posture,
vibrant change of topology, landslide manifestation recognition, and node
position change. Where WSN is an entrant for monitoring natural disasters, this
distant supervision structure provides the reconnaissance process with extra
evidence and reliefs the machinist to comprehend the location and movement with
less struggle (Vu Van Khoa, 2018).

2.2
Disaster Occurrence and Response

Disasters—ordinary and human-made—are a
vital force in determining Earth’s ecology (Lee, 2018). Natural disasters hit
long before current humans settled the planet and will likely last as long as
Earth exists. The progress of humans and consequent development essential to
withstand modern groups has also exaggerated the ecosystem. There are numerous
phases and objectives of disaster response, and these change over time. In each
of the stages of disaster response, many questions arise about what we must do
and why. Disaster ethics endeavors to answer queries about what we ought to do
to avert and retort to disaster circumstances. Inclusive treatment of disaster
ethics is still evolving in this new arena. Like any emerging field, there are
various key contributors emerging approaches from their own viewpoint. A
substantial forthcoming challenge for the arena will be to link the many morals
subfields that composition a role in doing what is correct throughout a
disaster.

2.3
Solution creation on Disasters

Common covenant is operative disaster
management experience restrictions connected to knowledge sharing and a
necessity for real-time investigation replies. Extreme circumstance patterns of
disasters specifically susceptible to these encounters are worldwide epidemics,
or ailment eruptions, in which data compulsory for investigation response are
only accessible after the start of an eruption (WilliamCallaghan, 2016). This
paper contends the emerging arena of probabilistic invention (innovation
cumulative possibility of solving social problems through fundamentally
accumulative direction of capacities of problem-solving inputs and examination),
and its procedures, such as those illustration from crowdsourced R&D and
communal media, may compromise useful perceptions into allowing tangible time
research competences, with significant insinuations for disaster and crisis
management. Three paradigms of disaster research are distinguished, as works
are related to system offered by post normal science, Kuhnian ‘normal science’
and Lakatosian ‘structural science,’ and the goal of attaining real time
research delinquent solving volume in disaster crisis circumstances. Global
cooperative invention podia and large-scale funding in developing crowdsourced
R&D and social media knowledges composed with mixture of appropriate theory
may subsidize to improved real time disaster response and resilience crossways
settings, chiefly in examples where data obligatory to manage reply is only
obtainable after disasters reveal.

2.4
Humanitarian involvement in Disaster Management

Since the 1950s, the amount of ordinary
and man-made disasters has amplified exponentially and the capability position
issue has become the desired tactic for coordinating with emergency
humanitarian logistical complications. To covenant with this challenge, a
precise process and an experiential process have been pooled as the key method
to solving this delinquent is proposed by Chawis Boonman, Mikiharu Arimura and
Takumi Asada.

Owing to the standing that an precise
algorithm holds with regard to improving emergency humanitarian logistical
facility position difficulties, their paper demeanors a survey on the
capability location problems that are connected to emergency humanitarian
logistics built on both data displaying types and problem types and inspect the
pre- and post-disaster situations with admiration to facility location, such as
the location of delivery centers, warehouses, shelters, debris elimination
sites and health centers. The survey examine the four key problems:
deterministic capacity location difficulties, dynamic capacity location
difficulties, stochastic capacity location difficulties, and robust capacity
location difficulties. For each difficulty, facility location type, data
demonstrating type, disaster type, conclusions, purposes, constraints, and
solution methods evaluated and real-world applications and case studies offered
(Chawis Boonmee, 2017).

Fatih Cavdur, Merve Kose-Kucuk and Asli
Sebatli measured the problem of brief disaster response facility portion for
temporary or short-term disaster relief processes, propose a solution approach
and demonstrate it with an earthquake case study in Turkey. A two-stage
stochastic platform is established for the solution of the problem to minimize
the total distance traveled, the unmet claim and the total number of facilities
(bearing in mind the potential problems to contact the facilities), where
facility apportionment and provision conclusions are performed in the first and
second stages, correspondingly (Fatih Cavdur, 2016). An earthquake case study
established by the Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Authority
(typically mentioned as AFAD in Turkey) is used to test their prototype. They
castoff five different situations, each demonstrating a dissimilar
after-disaster state (i.e. time, traffic conditions etc.), with its specific
probability of occurrence, to model the mandate uncertainty for relief
supplies. They first solve the deterministic model for each scenario, and then,
the equivalent stochastic program. In addition to the demarcated objectives of
the model, quality of each solution is analyzed in terms of mediocre walking
distance, demand fulfilment rate and average facility consumption.

As per S. Rajakaruna, Previous
investigates has shown that Logistic skills are a basic requirement for
employment and career development within the Humanitarian Logistics (HL) field.
These skills requirements are changing in various logistics functions, groups
and cultures. At the same stretch increasing global disasters are adding to the
challenges that are adversely affecting the HL supply chain. Skills of the
logisticians are therefore a necessity to effectively accomplish the supply
chain in a disaster (S.Rajakaruna, 2017). It is vital to study in to the area
of HL, considering the recent issues that are being met afterwards every
disaster in Sri Lanka. A number of researches have been carried out in finding
skills of the humanitarian logisticians at global level. However, as to date
there has been narrow discussion on the abilities of humanitarian logisticians
in the Sri Lankan humanitarian arena. In his research a Factor Analysis (FA)
was directed in order to find the skills of humanitarian logisticians in Sri
Lanka. Skills which were recognized earlier by researchers were additional
tested in order to find the applicability in the local HL scenery and
identified deferent set of component than in the earlier studies. Results will
assist the training and employing humanitarian logisticians.

2.5
Vulnerability to Disasters | Floods in Sri Lankan context

Throughout the last four decades floods
have been the main tragedy that affected the uppermost number of families in
Sri Lanka. At existing conditions, flood risk reduction is utterly taken into
consideration by pertinent authorities taking extenuation actions to save lives
and properties. Nonfiction on gender and disasters shows the significance of
gender in disaster vindication to bring better consequences (Kushani De Silva,
2014).

Kushani De Silva’s and Ramanie
Jayathilaka’s study is an attempt to understand the prominence of gender
dimension in a flood disaster risk reduction project executed in Sri Lanka. The
study was steered in two Grama Niladari divisions Pamunuwila and Galedanda in
the Gampaha district where the scheme “cleaning Natha Ela” was implemented
throughout to address the issue connected to floods in the area. The overall
objective of the research was to recognize, whether gender has been adequately
addressed in the project management cycle of the flood risk reduction project
and its consequences.

The study revealed that women were more
vulnerable to the flood disaster compared to men, due to differences in
employment status, income, gendered social roles, social norms and restrictions
governing behaviour. Even though the communities experienced a significant
reduction of flood damages after the project implementation, the impact on the
community could have been much greater if the project had considered the gender
aspects related to floods.

The study thus strengthens the argument
that sexual category planning is vital for any development activity. In the
case of cleaning the Natha ela project, gender was neutral from the planning
stage to the implementation stage. The low representation of the women in the
decision making process also contributed to the lack of gender sensitivity in
the project. Thus the study clearly exposed that although disasters affect both
men and women, the impact could be different and therefore vindication efforts
need to addresses such differences to create both men and women resilient to
flood disaster.

2.6
Disaster Recovery

Post-disaster retrieval of Micro, Small
and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) relics an question of interest for strategy
and repetition given the wide scale incidents of natural disasters around the
world and their noteworthy impacts on local frugalities and SMEs. Asian Tsunami
of December 2004 affected many SMEs in southern parts of Sri Lanka
(S.W.S.B.Dasanayaka, 2014).

The study of S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka and
Gayan Wedawatta classify the key issues met by the Tsunami affected SMEs in
Southern Sri Lanka in the procedure of their post-tsunami retrieval. The study:
a) recognizes tsunami harm and loss in micro and SMEs in the Galle district; b)
ascertains the sort of aids received from numerous stakeholders by the
pretentious micro and SMEs; c) assesses the problems and difficulties
confronted by the recipient organizations in the assistance distribution
procedure; and d) endorses strategies and policies for the tsunami-affected
micro and SMEs for them to converted self-sustaining within a practical time
frame. Fifty randomly chosen tsunami-affected micro and SMEs were surveyed for
this study. Interviews were piloted in person with the commercial owners in
order to classify the harms, recovery, reintegration, re-establishment and
problems faced in the benefit dissemination process.

The examination recognizes that the
remunerations were given the erroneous priorities and that they were not
adequate for the retrieval process. Moreover, numerous governance-related
difficulties that arose while allocating benefits are discoursed. Overall, the
business retrieval rate was about 65%, and about 88% of commercial
organizations were individual proprietorships. Consequently, the rules of the
tsunami relief agencies should sufficiently discourse the needs of sole
proprietorship commercial necessities. Consideration should also be given to
reinforce the capacity and skills of the businesspersons by improving
functioning, technical, administration and selling skills and capabilities.

3. Conclusion

There are studies
carried out to appraise the disaster influence on economic nature, especially
in Sri Lankan context Tsunami and pecuniary impacts are comprehensively
evaluated. Information systems use to analyze Disasters is an area recently
many researches are done. Also Disaster ethics and generalizing disaster
management progression is a recent theme extensively discussed. But it is very
perceptible that areas like laws and regulations of disaster management and
landslide disaster management associated studies are absent.
Contemporary trends on the Disaster management allied technology development
will be able to generate a positive impact on voluminous independent as well as
related occurrences overcoming. Understanding the knowledge gap and developing
tools on current topics are the objective values of this Research.

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