Abstract— to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect

Abstract— Although the power system grid growth pace wasslow, the load demand was not. Yet, there are some challengesthat impeding the power grid to cope with the load pace, namely:renewable energy integration; energy efficiency; vulnerability tofaults; and complexity of the power grid. Such challenges revealthe concept of smart grids (SG). In SG concept, secured, efficient,economic, and intelligent grid was sought in order to face theaforementioned challenges. One of the important tasks of an SGis self-healing. In this paper, the self-healing concept will beillustrated in the context of the SG. The self-healing functions,applications and developments will be explored. The majordevelopments made in the transmission and distribution gridthanks to power electronics converters will be shown. Then, theemployed communication technologies, measurements andsoftware agents which can be used for taking critical SG self-healing decisions will be reviewed.        Keywords—Communications technology; power converters; protection; self-healing, smart grid; software agents..I. INTRODUCTIONThe power grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. However, such  network’s infrastructure faces lots of difficulties in operation and control because of disturbances on different levels, failure of grid’s components, several interconnections and dependencies between the network variables 1. Moreover, the power system grid growth pace was slow,while the load demand was not. EIA’s International Energy Outlook 2017 (IEO2017) projects that among all regions of the world, the fastest growth in buildings energy consumption through 2040 will occur in India. In the IEO2017 Reference case, delivered energy consumption for residential and commercial buildings in India is expected to increase by an average of 2.7% per year between 2015 and 2040, more than twice the global average increase 2. Thus, power grid must be operated efficiently and reliably, which are crucial. Demand for reliable and efficient power grid raises the need of modern power grid that response to disturbances and malfunctions efficiently. This can be achieved by deploying intelligent devices throughout the electrical network. Doing so, the smart grid (SG) is obtained. SG can be define as: “A modern grid that enables bidirectional flow of energy and uses two-way cyber-secure information and communication technologies in an integrated fashion across electricity generation, transmission, substations, distribution, and consumption to achieve a system that is clean, safe, secure, reliable, resilient, efficient, and sustainable.The electricity demand pattern of a nation is necessarily affected by several factors such as socio-economic growth, weather condition, geographical diversity, sunrise/sunset times, seasonal diversity etc. Diversity and complexity in demand pattern due to population and socio-economic growth have been leading to develop the concept of smart grid (Fig. 2). India is steadily venturing into renewable energy resources like wind and solar. With such unpredictable energy sources feeding the grid, it is necessary to have a grid that is highly adaptive (in terms of supply and demand). A good electric supply is one of the key infrastructure requirements to support overall development, hence, the opportunities for building smart grids in India are immense. The main building blocks of SG are summarized in Fig. 1. Fig. 1: Elements of SGIt is well known that SG has several involved factors which are more or less same for every nation and India is no exception. Although, SG can be addressed from different perspectives, this paper focuses on importance of an SG in context of India. The main aim of this paper is to clarify the applications and developments of SG in India. Moreover, the most recent self-healing functions in transmission and distribution grids as well as the concept of microgrid are reviewed. The tools that are used for SG self-healing (e.g. information and communication technologies, software agents, and measurements) are explored. II. SMART GRID IN INDIAA. Evolution of electric grid in IndiaThe first demonstration of electric light was conducted in Calcutta on 24 July 1879 by P W Fleury & Co. After the success of electricity in Calcutta, power was thereafter introduced in Bombay in 1882 at Crawford Market and Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company (BEST) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricity for the tramway. Thereafter development geared-up in several part of India and different power generating stations was setup followed by transmission and distribution grids, state electricity boards,  Central Electricity Authority (CEA) etc. Electric grid management on regional basis started in India in sixties. Initially, State grids were inter-connected to form regional grid and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern region. In October 1991, North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected. In March 2003, Western and Eastern-North Eastern  region (ER-NER) were interconnected, called new grid. In August 2006, Northern and new grid were inter- connected (called central grid) thereby four regional grids namely: Northern, Eastern, Western and North Eastern grids are synchronously connected forming central grid operating at one frequency. On 31st December 2013, Southern Region was connected to Central Grid in Synchronous mode with the commissioning of 765kV Raichur-Solapur transmission line thereby achieving ‘ONE NATION’-‘ONE GRID’-‘ONE FREQUENCY’ (Fig. 3).  Fig. 2: Smart Grid B. Need for smart grids in IndiaAt an All-India level, the total losses have come down from 26.63% in 2011-12 to 21.81% in 2015-16. It is clear that the fruits of increased power generation cannot be reaped unless there is serious effort towards reducing losses. Even in 2015-16, there are 17 States/UTs with aggregate losses exceeding 25%. In other words, out of the 100 units of energy supplied, the government is able to account for less than 75 units in these places. South of India is the only region in the country where every State/UT has an aggregate loss of less than 20%. In all other regions, there are places with losses exceeding 30% as well. In Jammu & Kashmir, Bihar & Arunachal Pradesh, the aggregate losses are close to 50% 3.In the 19th electric power survey unveiled by the CEA recently, it also said aggregate technical and commercial (AT&C) losses will come down to 13% by FY22, on the back of government programmes likes the Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Jyoti Yojana and the Integrated Power Development Scheme. The AT&C losses at a pan-India level are around 20% now.India is venturing very fast into renewable energy (RE)resources like wind and solar. Solar has great potential in Indiawith its average of 300 solar days per year. The governmentis also giving incentives for solar power generation in theform of subsidies for various solar applications; and has seta goal that solar should contribute 7 per cent of India’s totalpower production by 2022. With such high targets, solaris going to play a key role in shaping the future of India’spower sector.A lacuna of renewable resources is that their supply can be intermittent i.e. the supply can only be harnessed during a particular part of the day, like day time for solar energy and windy conditions for harnessing wind energy, also these conditions cannot be controlled. With such unpredictable energy sources feeding the grid, it is necessary to have a grid that is highly adaptive (in terms of supply and demand). Hence, the opportunities for building smart grids in India are immense, as a good electric supply is one of the key infrastructure requirements to support overall development 4. Nations like India will double their energy needs in a decade because of the consistent population growth, economic growth and rapid urbanization. Additionally, existing power system are becoming obsolete and no longer address the sustainability, security and economic requirements of today’s population. This growing power demand can be justified by smart grid.C. Key challenges of SG Implementation in IndiaLack of awareness, Inadequate grid infrastructure, low metering efficiency, communication security and data management are some of the key challenges of SG Implementation in India. The understanding of consumers on how power is delivered to their homes is very minimal.  Before implementing SG concepts in India, they should be educated about  the SG, the benefits of SG and SG’s contribution to low carbon economy. Consumers should be made aware of their energy consumption pattern at home, office etc. Utilities need to focus on the overall capabilities of SG rather than the mere implementation of smart meters. Policy makers and regulators must be very clear about the future prospects of SG.The key challenges facing India’s power infrastructure are two-fold. First, realizing the opportunity to develop new sources of wind, solar and hydropower to bringpower capacity in line with the country’s power needs; and second, strengthening the transmission system across India to enable existing and new sources of power to reach more people. The latter will require technology that allows sufficient amounts of power to be transmitted over long distances more efficiently with minimal losses. This is something we are seeing an increased emphasis on within the country.The utility in India is currently implementing multiple transmission corridors comprised of High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) (400 KV, 765 KV and under evaluation 1200 KV) and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) (+/-500 and +/-800 KV). Utilities also are taking advantage of ?exible line loading with the addition of reactive power controlling devices to handle power flow and optimal usage of corridors. Having more control and ?exibility is critical. With long distance grid networks, mismatches in power generation and demand and impact of power exchange, the transmission network in India faces many operational challenges. To overcome these challenges, deliver the right solutions, companies are exploring the implementation and deployment of Smart Grid Technologies.  The utility in India is planning for full scale deployment of WAMS (Wide Area Measurement System). WAMS implementation will enable grid operators to enhance operational efficiency & grid stabilities capitalizing Remedial action scheme (RAS) and system integrated protectionscheme (SIPS). There is excitement about the opportunities that exist to improve India’s power infrastructure. And in theprocess, we will have a roadmap for solving similar problems in other parts of the world where providing power over longdistances is an issue. Fig. 3: Evolution of electric grid in IndiaWith the transition from analogous to digital electricity infrastructure comes the challenge of communication security and data management. Since digital networks are more prone to malicious attacks from software hackers, security becomes a key issue. In addition to this, concerns on invasion of privacy and security of personal consumption data arise. The data collected from the consumption information could provide a significant insight into a consumer’s behavior and preferences. This valuable information could be abused, if correct protocols and security measures are not adhered to. These issues should be addressed in a transparent manner, to minimize any negative impact on a customer’s perception. Te systems should be designed with security as a priority and should be well protected against software hacking and other such malicious activities 4.D. SG  e?orts in India The efforts for the development and deployment of Smart Grids in India were being carried out through India Smart Grid Task Force (ISGTF) and India Smart Grid Forum (ISGF) since 2010 under the aegis of Ministry of Power (MoP). During the implementation of 14 Smart Grid Pilot projects in State utilities, it was felt that smart grid efforts required urgent concerted focus for which it was necessary to create a comprehensive institutional arrangement capable of dedicating the manpower, resources and organizational attention needed to take it forward.A Smart Grid Vision and Roadmap for India was approved by the Ministry of Power in August 2013 which also envisaged the launch of a National Smart Grid Mission (NSGM) having its own resources, authority, functional & financial autonomy to plan and monitor implementation of the policies and programmes prescribed in the roadmapThe indicative components of smart grids in 12th plan would be broadly as follows:? Deployment of Smart Meters and AMI.? Substation renovation and Modernisation with deployment of GIS wherever economically feasible.? Development of medium sized Microgrids.? Development of Distributed Generation in form of Roof Top PVs.? Real-time monitoring and control of Distribution Transformers.? Provision of Harmonic Filters and other power quality improvement measures.? Creation of EV Charging Infrastructure for supporting proliferation of EVs.Smart grid being a new and evolving field, the activities presently envisaged are only indicative and during the course  of implementation, further activities can be incorporated based on evolution of technology.III. METHODOLOGY FOR IMPLEMENTATIONLeveraging RAPDRP: The basic infrastructure is being created under RAPDRP/IPDS in large towns, over which the Smart Grid development can be superimposed. IT implementation and SCADA being carried out will be leveraged for Smart grid. The Infrastructure being created under System strengthening being done in Part-B will be leveraged for better and effective use so as to be ready to support Smart Grid technologies / functionalities upon completion. AMI will be implemented and all the consumer meters being installed in these cities will preferably be Smart Meters. Under Part-B works utility should preferably provision for RMUs, sectionalizers, path for alternate feeding etc. Substation modernization will be done under Part-B and wherever there is economic feasibility GIS will be installed.Microgrids: As envisaged in the Roadmap, NSGM will promote development of microgrids in islands, Special economic zone (SEZs), institutions and commercial hubs that would dovetail the existing projects under renewable energy projects and other international support programs.Promotion of EVs: Deployment of EV Charging Infrastructure envisaged under the National Mission for Electric Mobility of Ministry of Heavy Industry (MoHI) can be coordinated under NSGM in some of these cities.Distributed Generation in form of Roof top PVs: The promotion of grid connected solar capacity addition, Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) also has a mandate to encourage the rooftop solar segment. The promotion of Roof top PV based Distributed Generation will be encouraged with invigoration of Central and state government’s schemes in association with MNRE and respective state governments and mechanism of funding and incentives will be worked out under their schemes. Technology Demo Projects for Real Time Monitoring: These initiatives are directed towards improving Quality and reliability of Power and will be partly-funded under NSGM in these cities.IV. CONCLUTIONIn this paper, an overview of smart power grid in India is introduced. Ministry of Power injunction with India Smart Grid Task Force is playing important role in development of SG in India. The PMUs as well as the communication technology developments have been achieved under pilot projects at different geographical locations in India. AMI, OMS, MG/DG, EV with charging infrastructure, Home Energy Management System, Cyber security with threat management are the adopted functionalities for SG in India. IIT Kanpur is working on smart city pilot project approved by MoP, India. After successful completion of this smart city pilot project, deployment of smart grid in smart cities will come into the picture.