ABSTRACT time and patience are of essence. In other



When we need to travel  in public transport, time and patience are of
essence. In other words, many people using public transport buses have
experienced time loss because of waiting at the bus stops. So, we
require one tracking system to track the Complete Transport System. Every
GPS tracking system is a common approach to get vehicle location information in
real-time. The system includes a GPS/GPRS module for location acquisition and
message transmission, AT&T’s cellular data service to transfer of location
information. It will show the correct
position of the vehicle to the user on the basis of the location information
sent by the GPS Device.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now



GPS, AT, AVL Database, AVL, EAT, LED, LCD, Vehicle



Real-time vehicle tracking and management system has been the focus of many
researchers, and several studies have been done in this area. In this project,
the main area of concentration is tracking buses for which people were waiting
for a long time. Also, people have the right to know where the bus is now and
how long time it takes bus to reach bus stop. It will help the passengers to
track the vehicles, to get real time position of the vehicles, changed routes
(If any), it can also act as an anti- theft application by detecting the exact
position of the vehicles.

Real time tracking is becoming more and more popular as
devices utilizing the Global Positioning System (GPS) become more readily
available. In this system, the buses send their coordinates (latitude and
longitude, among other data) to a central database every thirty seconds using
AT’s cellular data service. This data allows the dispatcher to know where
all the buses are at any given time.


The proposed system will show user the real time location
of the vehicle on the Google Map by using GPS (Global Positioning System) &
AT&T. The application will ask the user (Passenger) to enter the bus number
in which he/she wishes to travel. Then the user will enter the source and the
destination of their journey. After entering all the necessary information, the user will click on the locate button. Upon clicking the locate button, the user will get all the detailed information about the location of the
bus. The goal of this project is to enable passengers to easily access data
related to the bus that they are interested.


2.1 Application

The system involves many different parts that worked together to accomplish
the requirements. The source of all the data that is presented originates in
the AVL Database. This database is where the buses send data every 30 seconds.
The buses send information such as longitude, latitude, heading, route, and
speed. From there the data is accessed on two different web servers. The
estimated arrival time server grabs the data and does calculations on each bus
and outputs a comma separated string. The second server uses the AVL data to
map the buses on a real time Google map.


    The second server also communicates with the estimated arrival time server to
request the ETA string and parse it to display in a table that is presented to
the user. There is a Java application running on the inside Server that makes a
request for the ETA string, parse it, and sends the times to each specific LED
display, mounted above each bus stop. The Java application opens sockets to
each LED display individually and sends the appropriate arrival time. The
communication uses the wireless local area network at the station. Two PCs
control two of the liquid crystal displays (LCD) via dual video graphics array
(VGA) ports


                Figure 1: Implementation Diagram


    The mobile friendly version has a very simple
user interface to cut down on load times. It has the option to view a table
which is a text based display of a specific route or view a map of a specific
route. Due to the large number of buses to display, a map with all buses was
left out of the mobile version because it was unusable on a small screen. Along
with all these improvements a simple implementation of Google’s direction
service was used to give the user an ETA for the bus to arrive at its next
stop. This information is available along with route name, heading, speed, and
next stop on all.

2.2 LED Program

The final implementation of the LED Java code resulted in a shell program
that calls a Java program twice every minute. Since CRON has a minimum
scheduling resolution of 1minute, it must call the Java program, sleep for 3o
seconds, and then call the same program again. The Java program requests the
ETA values from Mobile Education’s server for each of the six routes then sends
a command to the appropriate display to show that routes name and ETA. Each bus
has a specific LED sign that it stops under which has a static IP address. The
Java program the IP addresses are hard coded to display appropriate information
on the correct LED sign.



3.1 Design Issues

There were few issues that arose
when going over the project requirements. The first issue to overcome was the
programming language; lack experience in Java Server Pages presented issues
that slowed down the projected implementation of this project. This was a
requirement so that the system can be maintained in the future by Dr. Vetter.
JSP was released in 1999 by Sun as a direct competitor to ASP and PHP. JSP
helps to bridge the gap between java and the web. Throughout the project the
syntax and integration with java presented a steep learning curve. I was able
to become proficient in JSP by learning the best practices, so now it can be
used in future.

Figure 2: Data Flow Diagram

  Another issue was the presentation of the data to the user. At the                       bus station the data on
the page changes without refreshing the entire page. Previously a meta refresh
was used to update the information. That wasn’t acceptable because it would
cause a noticeable blink of the user interface. Since JSP is a server side
language the only way around this was to change the data using a client side
language like JavaScript. Also, the displays are all 1o8op so all of the
interfaces needed to be optimized for that resolution. This would have
represented a challenge for the news page that was part of Wave Transits public
site. The public site should be accessible to all resolutions which means it
cannot be optimized for the more common resolution. The news page was merged
with the arrivals display in prototype 3 so, this concern was eliminated.


3.2 Software and System Quality Metrics

The international Organization or Standardization
defines quality as “the totality of characteristics of an entity to bear on its
ability to satisfy state or implied needs”. This definition itself is very
vague, but in essence the quality will be measured by how well it conforms to
the requirements and that it can be used as it was intended. In other words
this protect would be considered successful if it meets the scope in the
allotted time, satisfies the customer and reaches the ultimate goal of
providing a benefit to the passengers of Wave Transit. Meeting these broad
goals ensured that the system met the requirements set forth by Wave Transit.


    The software was developed based on best practices
expressed for source code quality including readability, maintainability, low
complexity and robust error handling because readability and maintainability go
hand in hand, the software was written in a way that another individual can
easily understand and update it if necessary. The software was broken down into
individual components, each focused on a particular and singular task so as to
have the least complexity possible. Finally, robust error handling was enforced
to have a system that was capable of running 24./7 and provide the user with a
system that provided them with the tools they needed to operate it



The website
implementation started in prototype two as a simple upgrade to the existing
system that used Yahoo maps. The only option was to choose a single route and have
those buses show up on a Google map. Google maps allowed for the passenger to interact
by clicking the bus marker and seeing information about that bus. Previously
this information was shown above the Yahoo map image. Another improvement was
to showall buses in the same route. The old map would only show a single bus on
each route and the user had no control over which bus was shown. In prototype
two, the user could see all the buses on any given route as well as the
information specific to each bus. The text on the real time tracking page
before was quite lengthy and may have distracted users from the pages main
purpose. In prototype two, the page was made much shorter by moving the SMS
texting instructions to its own page and providing a link for users to navigate
to the page if they were looking for that information. The intent of the real
time tracking page is much clearer now as the route selection interface is very
prominent on the page and the use of bright hover states draws the user’s
attention. Prototype 3 was a huge improvement over prototype two with the
implementation of a mobile friendly tracking page as well as the implementation
of the other use cases.


     Now a user can select from 3 options on
the website, a table display of a single route, a map display of a single
route, or all of the routes on a single map. The mobile friendly 16 version has
a very simple user interface to cut down on load times. It has the option to view
a table which is a text based display of a specific route or view a map of a
specific route. Due to the large number of buses to display, a map with all
buses was left out of the mobile version because it was unusable on a small
screen. Along with all these improvements a simple implementation of Google’s
direction service was used to give the user an ETA for the bus to arrive at its
next stop. This information is available along with route name, heading, speed,
and next stop on all versions of the map and table display.


3: Final Mobile Implementation



 Design Methodology


   The spiral model proved to be an ideal way
to implement the Wave Transit real time bus tracking system. Each prototype
allowed for enhancement visually and functionally. As soon as prototype one was
released for the public several suggestions came up for improvement in
prototype two. For example, on the arrivals display inside the bus station a clock,
date, and message of the day were all added in the following prototypes to
increase usability for Wave Transit passengers. In addition, the map was improved
with a better orientation on the screen to show more of Wilmington and a
“you are here” marker was added to show passengers where they were
located while looking at the map. Along with these improvements we were also
able to spot a few bugs in

one that was remedied in prototype two. One issue was a caching issue specific
to Internet Explorer where it would cache the location of the buses which
caused the map display to show the buses in the same location on
each 30 second update



 I would like to extend a special thank to
Mrs.V.Vidhy Asst. Professor, Departmant of CSE, for providing me  to carry out the  work in precious way. I am also grateful to
my  Shri Shankarlal Sundarbai Shasun Jain
College for providing me a platform to do our research work.



this paper, the partial implementation detail of Real Time Bus Tracking was
stated.  This system tracks the current
location of all the buses and estimates their arrival time at different stops
in their respective
routes. Estimates are updated every time the bus sends an update. It
distributes this information
to passengers using display terminals at bus stops, web based GUI and smart
phone application which is android based. This research serves the needs of
passengers, vehicle drivers and administrators of the transport-system.



8. References

1. “MTA BusTime.” Metropolitan Transportation
Authority, March 12, 2011.

2. “Extreme Programming.” Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia. March 9, 2011.

3. “Organizational Structure & Analysis.” Wave
Transit – Wilmington,NC. TJR

12/2009. Web. 14 Mar 2011.


4. “Spiral Model.” Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia. March 8, 2011.

5. “Online CS Modules: The Spiral Model.” N.p.,
n.d. Web. 14 Mar 2011.


6. Melanson, Donald. “Brooklyn bus riders get real-time
bus tracking via

Engadget. N.p., 05 02 2011. Web. 15 Mar 2011.


7. “Town of Chapel Hill : Transit.” Town of Chapel
Hill. March 26, 2011.

8. “Nextbus Homepage.” Nextbus. March 26,2011.

9. “The NSCU Wolfline – Transit Visualization
System”. TransLoc. March 26, 2011.

10. ISO
8042 (1986) “Quality Vocabulary”, International Organization for


11. “CellSigns – Company :: Mobile Statistics”.
CellSigns. May 20, 2011.

“Google Transit Partner Program”. Google. May 26,2011.

Network Working Group of the IETF, January 2006, RFC
4252, The Secure

Shell (SSH) Authentication Protocol