ABSTRACT animal use might seem futuristic but bio-fabrication made



In past few decades,
leather is being an important part of the textile industry in the sense of
everything that may clothe, home decor, car interior and other goods and the demand
of the leather is increasing day by day in last few decades. Leather we are using may be made up of the skin of
the pigs, goats, cows, and sheep. Some exotic animals such as ostriches,
alligators, and kangaroos and even cats and dogs, who are slaughtered for their
meat and skin, which exports their skins around the world. Because of leather
is being not normally labelled, you will never know from where it came from.
Leather is generally made from the hide or skin
of an animal by tanning process.

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Growing the leather without
any animal use might seem futuristic but bio-fabrication made possible to grow
nature’s materials using living cells instead of animals. Collagen is a protein
which we will find in the animal skin, from which we can create bio-fabricated
leather material.

Depending on the desired properties, design and engineer the
material to deliver the right structural and aesthetic properties. Then the
collagen can be tan and finish it through an efficient, ecologically mindful
process to give the material its final character.


Animal friendly bio-fabricated
leather materials can be produced to the different size, shape and design to
desired properties and specification. Bio-leather materials produced in the
precise sizes and shapes. Reliable quality at volume and wastage reduce by 80%.
It is having lighter footprint on our planet.



Keywords: – lighter
footprint on earth, wastage reduced by 80 percent, Tunable.




If we go through the
process of manufacturing of the traditional leather, we will come to that it’s
a very complex and harmful process of fabricating, endangering life of many
animals and our environment. Traditional leather production include the use of
many harmful and dangerous chemicals like mineral salts, formaldehyde and
coal-tar derivatives. Without using this chemicals the leather that our made of
would rot right off our feet. Using such kind of chemicals causes many diseases
and also causes water pollution. Every year thousands of animals throughout the
globe were slaughters for their skins and hide specially in the country like India
and China where the law for animals rights are not followed properly.





1- Dangerous chemical involved in lather manufacturing process and people
getting affected by it. (Source 11)



Now if we go
through the manufacturing process of the bio-fabricated leather, the main
advantage of promoting the bio-fabricated lather is that is animal friendly
that it not use animal product like skin and hide for the manufacturing of the
leather. It’s an emerging approach in bio-fabrication of creating bio-leather.
The basic technology behind this is the growing the natural material using
cells instead of animals. This has been made possible by growing “collagen” a
protein which is found in the animal skin, from which bio-fabricated leather
can be made. For getting the desired properties and structure proper design and
engineer of material are done and further process like tanning are done to
desired requirement.


This futuristic
idea of growing leather without the use animal is made possible by the team of
Modern Meadow. Modern Meadow harnessing the collective power of the design,
biology and engineering to bio-fabricate a new material age by spending over a
century this bio-fabrication technology.












When we found
that there is need for the alternative production process of leather, to save
the life of animal and control the pollution caused by the production of
leather from the traditional techniques, and then need of an animal friendly
technique developed.


leather production process is a animal friendly process and much better than
the traditional process. There are many facts and points that creates need to
use bio-fabricated process over traditional process.


Tanning process in the traditional
lather production poses danger to both human and environment.

2.      Problem
caused in dumping the hazardous contain leftover chromium.

3.      Causes
cancer to the workers who work with it.

4.      Billions
of animals slaughters every year in global leather industry.

5.      It
pollutes the water and agriculture land which used to farm.

6.      It
has the greater footprint on the planet.

Traditional fabrication provides the
limited design possibilities at different scale.






Collagen a
protein is found in the animal skin is used to create a bio-leather material. Depending
upon the design and materials are engineered to obtain the right structure and
aesthetic properties and then tan and finishing is done through an efficient
and ecologically mindful process to obtain the final character of material.


Steps involved


Taking base pair of DNA

is basic structure of all living organism that carries all the instruction that
how an organism functions.


2.      Cut and replace with new
base pairs to create new, unique strands of DNA.

The base
of the DNA in a determined sequence determine the information that is available
for building an organism, similarly in the way in which alphapets are arranged
to form a meaning ful words and sentences. DNA are edited to instruct the cell
to manufacture the type and quantity of collagn which is required.


3.      Multiplying
the new DNA and cells

are normally building blocks of any living organism. Cells feed on the
nutrients supplied and convert those nutrients supplied into form of energy,
making copies of them-selves by rapidly multiplying tens of cells into billion
of cells.


4.      Producing
of the protein collagen from the cells.

these cells produce collagen and other proteins that work as building blocks of
our materials. Collagen is the one of the most abundant protein found in the animal


5.      Now
collagen groups together to form a triple helix collagen molecule.

this the triple helix structure of collagen then forms into fibrils (small
muscle fibres).



Figure 2- Triple helix structure of
collagen forming fibers. (Source 1)


Formation of fibres network.

there collagen molecule form a network of fibres. These firils are nanobibres
which join to form bundles called fibres.


7.      Assembling
of fibres and formation of material structure.

the lab uses some secret sauce (not detailed mention about the sauce chemical
structure and compound by the author and the lab modern meadow) and the they
further process the protein structure to create the unique bio-leather named
Zoa material.


8.      Now
bio-leather is tanned and finished.

bio-leather material are tanned and finished in an environmentally responsible,
reduce tanning process.



Figure 3- Tanning process (Source 1)




Tunable features

materials which can take any shape i.e. a liquid, a solid, a textile with
unique new characteristics.


2.      Better

materials produced in the precise sizes and shapes. Reliable quality at volume
and wastage reduce by 80%.


3.      Better
for planet

It is
animal friendly material that has lighter footprint on our planet.




In this paper we
presented about the upcoming new revolutionary technology in the textile or
leather industry, that modify the complete manufacturing process of leather and
making it the completely animal friendly which have the lighter foot print on
our planet. The purpose of presenting this is to acknowledge the people and the
Indian textile industry about the new invention and new technology which can
create a boom in the leather industry.


The main objective
of bio-leather

Making the process completely animal

2.      Providing
the industry the new age of technology which better than the traditional
leather manufacturing.

Making it to create much lighter footprint
on the planet earth.




I am kindly expressing thanks
to my respected guide Assistant Prof. Mr. Yogesh Mishra for their valuable time
and suggestions given to me.

I express my sincere thanks to them POORNIMA GROUP OF COLLEGES TO ORGANISE