A1. products group B) All characteristics of group behaviour

A1.  Two or more freely interacting people
(Interdependent -interact and influence each other); mutually accountable for
achieving common goals

from its technology group

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Lumber and forest
lands group

Specialty animal
products group


  B) All characteristics of
group behaviour are same  



c) Functions of Formal Groups

      Organizational functions


       1. Accomplish complex, interdependent
    tasks that are beyond the
    of individuals.
2. Generate new or creative ideas and
3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.
4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism
    for complex problems requiring
    varied information and assessments.
5. Implement complex decisions.
6. Socialize and train newcomers.  

1. 1. Accomplish complex,
Individual Functions


1. Satisfy the individual’s need for
2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the
    individual’s self-esteem and sense of
3. Give individuals an opportunity to
    test and share their perceptions of
    social reality.
4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and
   feelings of insecurity and powerless-

5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism
   for personal and interpersonal





   1. Satisfy the individual’s
need for

    test and share their perceptions of
 social reality.

Provide a problem-solving mechanism
   for personal and interpersonal

    of individuals.
2. Generate new or creative ideas and
3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.

. A2.  A
change in behavior as a result of experience or practice.

The acquisition of knowledge.

Knowledge gained through study.

To gain knowledge of, or skill in, something through study, teaching,
instruction or experience.

The process of gaining knowledge.

A process by which behavior is changed, shaped or controlled.

The individual process of constructing understanding based on experience
from a wide range of sources.


What is a theory?

A theory provides a
general explanation for observations made over time.

A theory explains and
predicts behavior.

A theory can never be
established beyond all doubt.

A theory may be modified.

Theories seldom have to be
thrown out completely if thoroughly tested but sometimes a theory may be widely
accepted for a long time and later disproved.


To learn is to acquire knowledge
or skill. Learning also may involve a change in attitude or behaviour. Children
learn to identify objects at an early age; teenagers may learn to improve study
habits; and adults can learn to solve complex problems. Pilots and aviation maintenance
technicians (AMTs) need to acquire the higher levels of knowledge and skill,
including the ability to exercise judgment and solve problems. The challenge
for the aviation instructor is to understand how people learn, and more importantly,
to be able to apply that knowledge to the learning environment. This handbook
is designed as a basic guide to educational psychology. This chapter addresses
that branch of psychology directly concerned with how people learn.

  Behaviourism stresses the
importance of having a particular form of behaviour reinforced by someone,
other than the student, to shape or control what is learned. In aviation
training, the instructor provides the reinforcement. Frequent, positive
reinforcement and rewards accelerate learning. This theory provides the
instructor with ways to manipulate students with stimuli, induce the desired
behaviour or response, and reinforce the behaviour with appropriate rewards. In
general, the behaviourist theory emphasizes positive reinforcement rather than
no reinforcement or punishment. Other features of behaviour are considerably
more complex than this simple explanation. Instructors who need more details
should refer to psychology texts for a better understanding of behaviourism. As
an instructor, it is important to keep in mind that behaviour is still widely
used today, because controlling learning experiences helps direct students
toward specific learning outcomes.

The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding
human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s
lifetime. To define learning, it is necessary to analyse what happens to the
individual. For example, an individual’s way of perceiving, thinking, feeling,
and doing may change as a result of a learning experience.
Thus, learning can be defined as a change in behaviour as a result of
experience. This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex
intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behaviour in more subtle ways.
In spite of numerous theories and Behaviourists
believe that animals, including humans, learn in about the same contrasting views, psychologists generally agree on
many common characteristics of learning.


A3. The study of Attitudes is a key and sometimes controversial issue within
Social Psychology. Petty & Racioppo define an attitude as “a general and
enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object or issue.”


An attitude is an evaluation of the feelings an individual has towards
something. They convey what we think and how we feel about an object, ‘target’
or referent. These referents may be specific and tangible or abstract and
intangible. When the object of the attitude is important to the person, the
evaluation of the object produces an affective, or emotional reaction.


Attitudes are predispositions to respond
towards particular people of situations in a particular manner. They are
learned and relatively enduring. They are, therefore, there product of
experience but enter into subsequent experience as a directing factor.

  help us
understand how a person’s attitude takes shape and why a person might have a
particular attitude or how that attitude came to exist. Attitude formation is
of particular interest to psychology because attitudes often direct behaviour

is no single dominant theory on attitude formation. Rather, there are three
theories that are used most often to describe attitude formation: functionalism,
learning, and cognitive dissonance theories. Attitude formation theories
suggest that perhaps we do what benefits us (functionalist theory), or
maybe our past experiences have taught us how to act (learning theory),
or it might just be an attempt to restore harmony to two opposing truths that
are held (cognitive dissonance theory).  

 1. Functionalist theory.
Daniel Katz proposed a functionalist theory of attitudes. He takes the view
that attitudes are determined by the functions they serve for us. People hold
given attitudes because these attitudes help them achieve their basic goals.
Katz distinguishes four types of psychological functions that attitudes meet.

A. Instrumental – we develop favourable attitudes
towards things that aid or reward us. We want to maximize rewards and minimize
penalties. Katz says we develop attitudes that help us meet this goal. We
favour political parties that will advance our economic lot – if we are in
business, we favour the party that will keep our taxes low, if unemployed we
favour one that will increase social welfare benefits. We are more likely to
change our attitudes if doing so allows us to fulfil our goals or avoid
undesirable consequences.

B. Knowledge – attitudes provide meaningful,
structured environment. In life we seek some degree of order, clarity, and
stability in our personal frame of reference. Attitudes help supply us with
standards of evaluation. Via such attitudes as stereotypes, we can bring order
and clarity to the complexities of human life.

C. Value-expressive – Express basic values,
reinforce self-image. EX: if you view yourself as a Catholic, you can reinforce
that image by adopting Catholic beliefs and values. EX: We may have a
self-image of ourselves as an enlightened conservative or a militant radical,
and we therefore cultivate attitudes that we believe indicate such a core

D. Ego-defensive – Some attitudes serve to
protect us from acknowledging basic truths about ourselves or the harsh
realities of life. They serve as defense mechanisms. EX: Those with feelings of
inferiority may develop attitude of superiority.

Katz’s functionalist theory also offers an explanation as to why
attitudes change. According to Katz, an attitude changes when it no longer
serves its function and the individual feels blocked or frustrated. That is,
according to Katz, attitude change is achieved not so much by changing a
person’s information or perception about an object, but rather by changing the
person’s underlying motivational and personality needs.

EX: As your social status increases, your attitudes toward your
old car may change – you need something that better reflects your new status.
For that matter, your attitudes toward your old friends may change as


Mohandas Karamchand

Native name

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
2 October 1869
Porbandar, Porbandar State, Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency, British India1
(present-day Gujarat, India)


30 January 1948 (aged 78)
New Delhi, Delhi, Dominion of India (present-day

 Mahatma Gandhi  

u Born 2
October 1869 in porbandar  British Indian

u Earned law
degree in London in 1891

u Gave up law
in 1893 to pursue a life of standing up for Indian’s  right in both south Africa and India

u Became the
preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement attempting to detach
Indian from British  rule

u He had his schooling in nearby Rajkot, where his father served as the
adviser or prime minister to the local ruler. In May 1883, the 13-year old
Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturba Lakhani in an arranged child
marriage, as was the custom in the region. In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the
couple’s first child was born, but survived only a few days

u We think Gandhi was a very admirable intelligent and impotent man because
he made a lot things to help people and to help India against British control
we would always remember him for all his sacrifices.

u .leadership has been described as the process of social influence in which
one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a
common task. It is a process by which one person influences the thoughts,
attitudes, and behaviours of others

Laissez faire leader: The
dictionary meaning of laissez faire is policy of non- interference

Also known as a free rein
leader a laissez faire gives full freedom to his followers to act

He does not lay down
guidelines within which his followers have to 

He neither influences the
subordinate’s decisions nor does he interfere in the process of decision

Leader function

Goal determination; a
leader determines the objectives of the group and lay down policies and
programmes for attaining them he acts as the planner and policy maker.

Motivating followers: a
leader stimulates people to perform their duties with enthusiasm and sincerity.
He is the sources of rewards and punishments he creates confidence in his
followers he inspires team work and secures maximum co-operation from the

Direction; efficient
leadership provides guidance and advice to people and directs their behaviour
towards the per-determined objectives. A leader is able to direct the actions
of his follower.

Co-ordination; leadership
is the force which binds a group together it provides a cohesive force which holds
the group intact and develops a spirit of unity a leader reconciles the goal of
the individuals with the organizational goal and creates a community of

Representation: a leader
is the representative of his group. He takes initiative in all matters of
interest to the group and strives to fulfil the psychological needs of his
followers he is the symbol of the group.









 Provide a problem-solving mechanism
    for complex problems requiring
    varied information and assessments.
5. Implement complex decisions.
6. Socialize and train newcomers. Accomplish complex, interdependent
    tasks that are beyond the
    of individuals.
2. Generate new or creative ideas and
3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.
4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism
    for complex problems requiring
    varied information and assessments.
5. Implement complex decisions.
6. Socialize and train newcomers.