a) regional government infrastructure such as traffic light controls,


Government and military computer
systems are commonly attacked by activists and foreign powers. Local and
regional government infrastructure such as traffic light controls, police and
intelligence agency communications, personnel records, student records, and
financial systems are also potential targets as they are now all largely
computerized. Passports and government ID cards that control access to facilities
which use RFID can be vulnerable to cloning.

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b)     Medical systems

Medical devices have either been
successfully attacked or had potentially deadly vulnerabilities demonstrated,
including both in-hospital diagnostic equipment and implanted devices including
pacemakers and insulin pumps. There are many reports of hospitals and hospital
organizations getting hacked, including ransomware attacks, Windows XP
exploits, viruses, and data breaches of sensitive data stored on hospital
servers. On 28 December 2016 the US Food and Drug Administration released its
recommendations that are not legally enforceable for how medical device
manufacturers should maintain the security of Internet-connected devices.



Berlin starts National Cyber Defense
Initiative: On June 16, 2011, the German Minister for Home Affairs, officially
opened the new German NCAZ (National Center for Cyber Defense) Nationales
CyberAbwehrzentrum located in Bonn. The NCAZ closely cooperates with BSI
(Federal Office for Information Security) Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik,
BKA (Federal Police Organisation) Bundeskriminalamt (Deutschland), BND (Federal
Intelligence Service) Bundesnachrichtendienst, MAD (Military Intelligence
Service) Amt für den Militärischen Abschirmdienst and other national
organisations in Germany taking care of national security aspects. According to
the Minister the primary task of the new organisation founded on February 23,
2011, is to detect and prevent attacks against the national infrastructure and
mentioned incidents like Stuxnet.