A is process of all-time gaining and loosing in

A study on positive relationship between age and entrepreneurship in
textile industries

Researchers are all the time more
interested that entrepreneurship as a means to eliminate youth unemployment and
to get better financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies until
now have examined the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. Earlier
research explained the general negative contact of age on entrepreneurship, but
no research has been done on positive contact of age over entrepreneurship
activities using cross-sectional study.  We can develop and test our model in ages
between (20 to 80) years and our objective is to test, that with course of time
perceived opportunities and skills of an entrepreneur improved which in
sequence increase entrepreneurship activities in the textile industry. Here
perceived opportunities, and skills, participate as a mediating role between
age and entrepreneurship activities. This ultimately could help to reduce
unemployment, and improve financial stability in that sector.

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Research background

What is
entrepreneurship”? Basically entrepreneurship is describes as the finding,
assessment and utilization of new opportunities, new sources to create new
ideas and products ”.(Shane and Venkataraman,
2000).  ”In generally, some
previous studies recommended the negative contact of age our entrepreneurship
as referred by” (levesque and minniti, 2006).  Moreover, this negative connection is
still under discussion due to age allied characteristics.

Here we will add to
this text using lifespan perspective theory, to examine the positive contact of
age over entrepreneurship activities in textile industries via perceived
opportunities and perceived skills as mediating variables; and our population
is limited to textile industries, in Japan.

in 1987) ”says that, actually improvement is process of all-time  gaining and loosing in mental characteristics
in life,  As we know some abilities turn
down with passage of age e.g. physical muscle and some abilities, boost up
(e.g. acquaintance, intelligence, and skills). 
Moreover, at higher ages people mount up with human resources which
balance for decline in physical strength.

in 1987) says that, awareness of having some skills link with self efficiency which
further increase a confidence of capable of doing tasks effectively,,. Further,
individual’s evaluation on the own capital and opportunity also builds self
efficiency (Aizen.1987 and Gist and
Mitchell, 1992). This self efficiency
develops a belief of goal attainment which in sequence play rule to increase of
intentions and actions to reach that goal referred as (Boyed and vozikis, 1994). Desire to be excellent
entrepreneur is based on entrepreneurship self efficiency (Zhao et al., 2005). So, this self efficiency
develop if you have skills, and perceived opportunities,

Research question

How the age positively
relate with entrepreneurship activities? Or

How the entrepreneurship activities increase the perceived opportunities
and perceived skills with passage of age?


Definition of key concept

Entrepreneurial activity increases perceived opportunities (i.e. because people are in the entrepreneurial state of mind once they are engaged in entrepreneurship and as a result persistently perceived new opportunities) and perceived skills (i.e. because managing of business and performing the frequent tasks over long time create self efficiency perceptions). As with age intelligence and leadership abilities enhance according to theories of leadership development literature and lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship



In this research our point
is to test that, with age, skills and perceived opportunities of entrepreneur
increase which in sequence give positive contact on entrepreneurship activities
( as we know if entrepreneurship activities increases it would increase
business ,or expansion of business which further would help to decrease the
unemployment in society and improve the financial stability)



1st hypotheses:

Age relate positively to
entrepreneurship activities

2nd hypotheses

Perceived opportunities
relate positively to entrepreneurship activities

3rd hypothesis

Age relates positively
to entrepreneurship activities

4th hypothesesPositive relationship between age and entrepreneurship is mediated by perceived opportunities, and perceived skills,    


We Chi-square test
would use to check that whether particular distribution is consistence with
given data or not. To test our hypothesis and to determine that, whether
different samples, come from the population are with equal means or not for
that purpose we will use ANOVA analysis. To check the nature and strength of relationship
we will develop a estimating equation, of variables, and would apply,
regression, and correlation analysis, (Y= a +bX) equation of straight line, for
2 variables,

First we would observe
the direct contact of age on entrepreneurial activity while counting gender as
a control variable. In the second, we would put in the two mediator variables
to check mediation result. To further examine the mediation result we would
also check full mediation, partial mediation, whether the age on
entrepreneurial activity is insignificant or significant after including the
mediators to the model.

 we will develop a representative sample of
entrepreneur ages between (20 to 80) who are involved in textile business for
less than 10 years (x<10), another, sample in which entrepreneurs are involved In textile business, for (1030 years). Using, ANOVA analysis, we will compare the means of different


My first choice is to gather
data through personal visits or questionnaire and with the help company’s
coordination including small and medium enterprises to larger for research
purpose we can collect primary data. Otherwise we could also use data of AGM,
Global entrepreneurship monitor which is most recent publically available data,
which reflect development in entrepreneurship, in all industries including
textile, with more than 100 plus countries including Japan and Pakistan. The
GEM data is often used in educational research, as it provides a main database
for globally relative entrepreneurship. (Bergmann, H. Mueller, S., and Schrettle,
T. (2014).).”

Expected results

After study predictable
result could be, number of entrepreneurs who are in textile business for less
than 10 years could have less, entrepreneurship activities, as skills and
perceived opportunities are less as compared to the sample of, age (10