For parental status, Marks, Jun, and Song
(2007) conducted a study on how a death of a father, mother or both and also continuously
living with either one or both of the parents dead affects the multiple
dimensions of psychological well-being, alcohol abuse and as well as physical
health of an adult. Their study revealed that the death of a father creates
more negative effects for sons compared to daughters while the death of a
mother affects daughters more negatively than sons.
A study published by Constantino,
Goncalves de Assis, and Pinto (2016) about mental health status of in inmates
and people in custody in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil suggest that male prisoners who
have been staying for between one and nine years tend to experience less stress
symptoms than those who have been staying for less than a year. They also say
that performing prison work tasks gives them more protection against stress.
When it comes to Jail visits, the study of Zaninotto, Falaschetti, and
Sacker (2009) argue that adults should increase their social contacts, network
and support while they are still able to in order to give themselves a better
mental health. Moreover, a study on the adults of the LGB community done by Beeler,
Rawls, Herdt, & Cohler (1999) say that they receive help and caregiving
assistance from their partners even if they’re unmarried and friends along the same
age as they are.
The study of Swami, Premuzic, Sinniah,
Maniam, Kannan, Stanistreet, and Eurnham (2007) on loneliness, life
satisfaction and depression said that life satisfaction has a significant and negative
correlation with suicidal attitutes, loneliness and depression and depression
has significant and positive relationship with loneliness. Furthermore,
Headley, Kelly and Wearing (1993) support that life satisfaction is highly
correlated with depression saying that a person cannot be satisfied with life
and be depressed at the same time but is possible to be satisfied and anxious.