Land degradation is both
a natural and human-induced process (Zdruli
et al., 2010), which diminish the capacity of land
resources to perform essential functions and services (Hurni
et al., 2010). It is a global scale, ongoing, and
the relentless problem that poses a major long-term challenge to humans in
terms of its adverse impact on biomass productivity, food security,
biodiversity and environmental sustainability (Mueller
et al., 2014). Land degradation is the broad term
that includes soil erosion degradation (acidification, fertility depletion,
hard setting), biological degradation (reduction of total biomass and carbon
and decline of biodiversity) and groundwater depletion.

In Ethiopia,
deforestation and subsequent land degradation are the major challenges to
agricultural development and food security of the country. A large portion of
the agricultural land is affected by severe to moderate land degradation (Hurni
et al., 2010). The leading factor of land degradation is deforestation, soil
erosion, the growth of human and livestock population, overgrazing, and
mismanagement of land (Abiyu
et al., 2017; Wassie et al., 2009).

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Developing effective strategies
to restore degrade ecosystem has a crucial contribution to ecosystem services
and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, forest ecosystem restoration and clear
understanding of the pathways in each restoration options have strong relevance
to the success of the restoration.  These
options mostly relying on the objective of the restoration. There are two broad
strategic options in forest ecological restoration (Morrison and Lindell, 2011).  Passive restoration and active restoration. Passive
restoration where is  exclusion of  range of human disturbances and environmental  stressors  (e.g.  grazing ) in order to allow natural or
unassisted recovery (Holl and Aide, 2011; Morrison and
Lindell, 2011) and active restoration is where management techniques
to accelerate the  recovery of degraded
ecosystem through planting seed or seedling are implemented (Abiyu et al., 2017; Morrison and
Lindell, 2011). 


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