6-Literature instincts, but the fear of struggling against it

6-Literature Review

The primary work in this research is Never Let Me Go by
Kazuo Ishiguro. Never Let Me Go is a dystopian science fiction novel by
Nobel Prize-winning British author Kazuo Ishiguro. Never Let Me Go is a
metaphor for and a meditation on mortality. Learning of their fate, the clones
do not rebel. Falling in love and having much to live for, they do not rebel.
Losing pieces of their bodies to donations, they do not rebel.

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    Do you see the parallels around
you? Children learn about death, and accept that they will die intellectually,
but have no knowledge of dying. Throughout life, falling in love, enriching
themselves, they smoke, drink, remain physically idle, and eat themselves into
diabetes. The increasing debility of old age, dying one cell at a time, brings
realization of the true character of death, but it is often not enough to move
them off the couch or away from the bonbons.

     In the aggregate, the
same denial and acceptance occurs. Life extension research is laughed at. Are
you aware of any academic or scientific institution of good reputation which
conducts research into immortality? The fear of dying is one of the most
powerful human instincts, but the fear of struggling against it must be equally
powerful.

    Remain of the Day is
another famous novel by Kazuo Ishiguro that it discussed in this research. I
asked myself this same question during reading. Although Miss Kenton was
definitely one to appreciate the professionalism and quality with which Mr.
Stevens conducted his work that in itself does not seem enough to fall in love
with him. Especially considering the inconsiderate and sometimes unpleasant way
in which Mr. Stevens treated her.

 

However, I also believe that Mr. Stevens does not give a good
portrayal of their relationship. Mr. Stevens’ recollections mainly focus on
their disagreements and how they grew apart. We are never shown the amiable
nature or pleasant conversation the two may have had during their daily parlor
meetings. I am convinced that Miss Kenton and Mr. Stevens actually shared some
connection during these meetings (even though Mr. Stevens will undoubtedly have
remained very professional during them). Miss Kenton could probably see the man
behind the butler in those instances, allowing her to fall in love with him.
However, since Mr. Stevens does not consider such social interaction between
them to bear any significance or relevance, he does not tell us anything about
it.

The next main work that is used as the basic reference is Kazuo
Ishiguro and Memory by Yugin Teo. Memory asserts an enigmatic influence
over us. It simultaneously soothes and unsettles us, linking us with our past
and our histories while possessing the power to control our future. The role of
memory has implications for both the individual and the collective; without
memory, we would not have a sense of who we are as individuals, and without the
provision of shared memory, a group of individuals would not have a collective
identity. The grip of memory can have an overpowering and crippling effect on
individuals, adversely affecting the paths they choose in the course of their
lifetimes. Pivotal events or incidents that have taken place in the past (and
some may appear to be deceptively insignificant at the time) often prove to
have significantly shaped the unconscious later on. These events are
exemplified by missed opportunities, regretful conversations and, upon
retrospection, poorly made decisions. Kazuo Ishiguro’s novels frequently depict
these emotive journeys of memory. The implications of such memories for
individual characters are demonstrated through feelings of profound regret and
a pervading sense of mourning. The implications of shared memory for a collective,
however, are often more subtle.

     Violence: Six Sideways
Reflections is the major
book that is the basic reference in this research by Zizek. The premise of
Zizek’s theory is that the subjective violence we see – violence with a clear
identifiable agent – is only the tip of an iceberg made up of ‘systemic’
violence, which is essentially the catastrophic consequence of the smooth
functioning of our economic and political systems. With the help of Marx,
Engels, Sartre, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Lacan, Brecht and many more, Zizek examines
the hidden causes of violence, delving into the supposed ‘divine violence’
which propels suicide bombers and the unseen ‘systemic’ violence which lies
behind outbursts, from Parisian suburbia to New Orleans. For Zizek, the
controversial truth is that sometimes doing nothing is the most violent thing
you can do. He calls for a forceful confrontation with the vacuity of today’s
democracies – using an unconventional plethora of references.

    The How to Read Lacan is famous series book by Zizek and provides a context and an
explanation that will facilitate and enrich your understanding of texts vital
to the canon. These books use excerpts from the major texts to explain
essential topics, such as Jacques Lacan’s core ideas about enjoyment, which
re-created our concept of psychoanalysis. Lacan’s motto of the ethics of
psychoanalysis involves a profound paradox. Traditionally, psychoanalysis was
expected to allow the patient to overcome the obstacles which prevented access
to “normal” sexual enjoyment; today, however, we are bombarded by
different versions of the injunction “Enjoy!” Psychoanalysis is the
only discourse in which you are allowed not to enjoy.

      Zizek believes The Sublime Object of
Ideology to be one of his best books, he
provides an analysis of “How did Marx Invent the Symptom?” in which he
compares the ways in which the notion of symptom runs through the work of Karl
Marx and Sigmund Freud. Zizek opposes any simplistic reading of the two
thinkers, who are shown to have discovered the “kernel” of meaning
concealed within the apparently unconnected “forms” of commodities
(Marx) and dreams (Freud).    The kernel
of a commodity’s content is labor and its latent meaning is the dream. Zizek
thinks it more important to ask why latent content takes a particular form. Zizek
therefore argues that according to both Freud and Marx the dream-work and
commodity-form itself require analysis.