longum ( long pepper) , sometimes called Javanese, Indian, or Indonesian
long pepper. Piper longum belongs to Piperaceae family. Piper longum is an aromatic
climber with perennial woody roots occurring in the hotter parts of India. The
fruits commonly known as “pippali” are used as a spice and also as a
preservative in pickles. Piper longum is usually dried and used as a spice. Long
pepper have black pepper ?avor resemblance, but generally hotter than black pepper.
 Hence it is used as an adulterant in
ground black pepper (Govindarajan, 1977). Piperine is the main compound that
contributes the pungency to the fruit. Piperine is the main therapeutically
active constituent. Piperine was discovered
by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1819. Indo –Malaya region is the native of long
pepper. Piperine
is used in traditional medicine, including the traditional ayurvedic system of
medicine. Piper longum fruits are bene?cial for cough, bronchitis, asthma, malarial
fever, diarrhea , jaundice, leprosy and tuberculosis (Kirtikar et al., 1950). It
is also used as cattle feed. Piper longum used as a bioavailability enhancer. The
ripe fruit is sweet, pungent, laxative, antidiarrhoeic and antidysenteric. The
primary constituents that isolated from the various parts of piper longum are Piperine,
piper longumine, sylvatin, sesamin, diaeudesmin piper longumine, pipermonaline,
and piperundecalidine. Piper longum is a native of North East India and found
in tropical areas of India, from central Himalaya’s to Khasi, Assam, Mikir
hills of West Bengal and the evergreen forests of Western Ghats of Kokan to
Travancore. (Manoj et al.,2004).
Dried spikes are greyish to dark in colour with 1–3cm in long and 4–6mm in diameter.
The alcoholic extract of the fruits of Piper longum and its component piperine
shows signi?cant immunomodulatory and antitumor acivity (Sunila and