2. Source: Asphalt Institute Manual, 1990 The objective of

2.   Department: Civil Engineering

3.  
Date of Registration: Spring 2016

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4.  
Major area of study: Transportation
Engineering

Courses studied

I.             
Material Specification for highway engineering

II.         Pavement structure, Material and Design

III.       Ground improvement techniques

IV.       Retaining Structures & Embankments
for Highways

V.        Traffic engineering and management

VI.       Advanced pavement Engineering

VII.      Environmental Impact Assessment

VIII.     Pavement Evaluation & Rehabilitation

IX.       Research
Methodology

 

5.   Summary of Research proposal

5.0      
Research title

“Comparison of the Performance of Conventional and Modified
Asphalt Mixtures Using Marshall Method of Mix Design”

5.1      
Problem
statement

·        
Pakistan generates about
20 to 27 million tons of waste annually, of which 20% is of glass materials and
that number is growing by about 2.4 percent each year, according to the
country’s Environmental Ministry.

·        
Waste Glass can neither be digested nor decomposed and therefore, causing
environmental pollution. The best remedy is to recycle it for useful engineering
purposes particularly in pavement industry.

·        
Moisture damage is a major
cause of pavement failure nowadays.  The
presence of Moisture causes stripping in HMA, which results in breakdown of bond
between aggregates and asphalt binder.

·        
Asphalt mixture production is very expensive due
to cost of virgin materials.

 

5.2      
Research Objectives

 The primary objective of this study is

·        
To Study the effect of lime and Glass modification on the
performance of asphalt pavements;

·        
To reduce the cost and amount of virgin materials required in
the production of asphalt mixtures thereby introducing lime and glass modified
HMA;

·        
To control environmental pollution caused by waste glass
production;

·        
To reduce waste disposal cost.

 

5.3      
Literature review

Flexible
pavements are made up of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The conventional HMA is
combination of approximately 90% aggregates, 5 % asphalt cement and 5% air
voids as per specifications limits. The HMA include aggregates to withstand the
upcoming traffic loads and asphalt cement to bind the aggregates in the
mixture. Asphalt cement is used to provide flexibility to the HMA pavement. HMA
is heated and mixed with the aggregate at HMA plant. (Asphalt institute manual,
1990).

 

     

                                              
(a)                                                                                          
(b)

Fig 1(a), (b): Hot Mix Asphalt
(HMA)                                 

Source:
Asphalt Institute Manual, 1990

 

The objective of
highway pavement (HMA) is to provide smooth surface with enough skid resistance
over which vehicles can move safely from one place to another. The flexible and
rigid pavements have been frequently in practice to serve traffic and need to
be capable of transferring the wheel load to the larger subgrade area and
protect subgrade failure. The two basic type of distresses in HMA pavement are
rutting and fatigue cracking. These failures causes major problems regarding
design life of the HMA pavements (O. M. Ogundipe, 2016).

 

                 

       
Fig 2: Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking                       Fig 3: Rutting Failure

         Source: www.pavementinteractive.org

 

Fatigue failure
discloses itself in the form of cracking, when the HMA pavement is
subjected to repeated traffic loading or a series of temperature fluctuations
in the pavement. Fatigue cracking initiates at the
bottom of HMA layer and appears on the surface in the form of
interconnected cracks of different forms.
Fatigue cracking may also start at the surface and exceeds downward as is the
case for thermal cracking. Rutting in the HMA layer is also
the basic cause of asphalt pavement failure (Garba, 2002). Engineers
struggle to solve these failures to acceptable limits within a pavement design
life. Asphalt modification is one of the ways to make it more resistant to
rutting and fatigue failure in order to stretch existing budget and to do more
with less. Asphalt modification can also be made by using different
modifiers. Glass and
Lime are considered potentially promising modifiers and mineral fillers to
asphalt (Y. Issa, 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.4.1 Benefits of Using Glass

Glass materials provide an extra strength
and resistance to water damage than conventional HMA due to its silicon content
(Dalloul K.,
2013). Different studies have been made on Marshall Samples which reveals that
glass shows satisfactory results and can be used in the binder course as well
as in surface course (Dalloul K., 2013) (Sajed Y., 2014). By using glass in
asphalt, it can provide economic mixes that will reduce the Optimum binder
content and increase the stability and the durability of the mix. It also
increases the skid resistance of the road surface, which will reduce accidents
and save a lot of money (Dalloul K., 2013). Waverley (2010) constructed a road using crushed glass in the mix. The results
of rutting tests showed better stability than conventional HMA. Studies
were conducted on glass modified HMA mixtures, which showed
that stiffness modulus is increased in comparison with conventional HMA (Sajed
Y., 2014). Glass is available in several different forms depending upon their
application including: annealed, laminated, toughened, mirrored, patterned, coated, and tempered
glass (Y. Issa,
2016).

 

 

          

  
Fig 6: Crushed Glass                                            Fig
7: Crushed Limestone (Lime Powder)

 
Source: https://www.HongKongfp.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.4.2 Benefits of Using Lime

The benefit of using hydrated lime as an additive in
HMA mixtures is well known. Lime modified asphalt shows
better resistance to fatigue cracking, rutting and stripping (EuLA, 2010). Several
published studies indicate that hydrated lime improves resistance against
fatigue failure (EuLA, 2010). Hydrated Lime improves the aggregate asphalt
bond which makes the asphalt less sensitive to moisture effects and hence
improves rut resistance (Little and Epps, 2001).

Hydrated Lime provides the following advantages:

·        
Hydrated lime acts as an anti-oxidant (Age-Retarder).

·        
Hydrated lime acts as mineral filler that reacts
with clay fines, resulting in stiffening and reinforcing the asphalt binder.

·        
Hydrated lime changes the plastic properties of
clay fines to enhance resistance against moisture damage.

·        
Hydrated lime provides better resistance
to low temperatures cracking.

·        
Hydrated lime in the asphalt provides better
resistance to deform at high temperatures, when it is vulnerable to permanent
deformation (Little
and Epps, 2001).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.4      
Methodology

5.5.0  Methodology Flow Chart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 8: Methodology Flow Chart

5.5.1 Materials Collection

Coarse aggregates will be obtained from Margalla, Pakistan
and fine aggregates (Crushed stone dust) will be obtained from Nizampur,
Pakistan. The waste Glass and Lime material will be obtained from locally
available areas and then will be crushed and will be added to the mix. Bitumen
with 60/70 grade will be obtained from Attock Refinery.

 

5.5.2 Materials Testing

5.5.2.0 TEST Matrix

S. No.

Test

Description

Standard

ASTM

AASHTO

1

Flash
and Fire Points Test

Combustibility
and explosiveness of Bitumen

D
92-90

T
48-06

2

Penetration Test

Grade determination

D5/D5M

T 53-09

3

Softening
Point test (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)

Fluidity
determination

D
36-70

T
49-07

4

Moisture content test

Amount of Moisture determination in aggregates

D566

T 255-00

5

Gradation/
Sieve analysis of Aggregates

Particle
size distribution

D136
/ D136M

T
27-11

6

Los-Angeles abrasion test

Hardness/Strength 
determination

D 131-89

T 96-02

7

Marshall
Mix Design

Optimum
Binder Content determination

D
1559-89

T
245-97

8

Specific Gravity of Bitumen

Specific Gravity Determination

D 70-76

T 228-06

 

Table 1: Test Matrix

 

 

 

 

 

5.5.3 Sampling of HMA

Following types of Marshall Specimens will be made

 

Marshall Specimens

Quantity (No.)

Conventional HMA

20

                                         Table 2: Conventional HMA
Specimens 

Percentage of Glass

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Number of Specimens

12

12

12

12

12

                                         Table 3: Glass Modified HMA
Specimens 

Percentage of Lime

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Number of Specimens

12

12

12

12

12

                                          Table 4: Lime Modified HMA
Specimens 

 

Percentage of Glass

5%

5%

5%

5%

5%

Percentage of Lime

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Number of Specimens

12

12

12

12

12

(a)

Percentage of Glass

10%

10%

10%

10%

10%

Percentage of Lime

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Number of Specimens

12

12

12

12

12

(b)

Percentage of Glass

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

Percentage of Lime

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Number of Specimens

12

12

12

12

12

(c)

 

Table 5 (a), (b), (c): Combination of Glass and
lime Modified HMA Specimens

 

5.5.4 Target Parameters

The
following parameters will be considered

Rut Resistance
Marshall
Stability
Indirect Tensile
strength
Moisture
susceptibility

 

5.5.4.0 Rut Resistance

·        
Resistance
against wheel path Depressions,

·        
Rut
Resistance will be measured using wheel tracker device,

·        
Wheel
tracker plots deformation versus number of cycles.

Fig
9: Wheel Tracker
 
Source: https://www.pavementinteractive.org

 

Fig
10: Rutting Failure
 
Source: https://www.pavementinteractive.org

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.5.4.1 Marshall Stability

·        
Resistance
to ultimate compression,

·        
Marshall
Stability is measured using Marshall stability test,

·        
The asphalt
Marshal Stability is the maximum load that a sample can hold without fracturing.

·        
Sample Diameter
= 10cm, Height = 6.35cm, Weight = 1200gm

                                 

Fig 11: Marshall Specimens                               Fig 12: Marshall Stability
Tester

Source: https://www.pavementinteractive.org                           Source:

Pavement Interactive

 

 

Table for Marshall Design Criteria

Description

Light Traffic

Medium Traffic

Heavy Traffic

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Compaction, No of Blows on each side of specimen

35

50

75

Stability, N
               (lb)

3336
(750)

___

5338
(1200)

___

8006
(1800)

___

Flow, 0.25mm (0.01 in)

8

18

8

16

8

14

Percent Air Voids

3

5

3

5

3

5

Percent VFB

70

80

65

78

65

75

Percent VFA

14

14

14

 

                                                 Table 6: Marshall Mix Design Criteria

Source: Asphalt Institute Manual, 1990

 

 

 

5.5.4.2 Indirect Tensile strength

·        
Indirect
tensile strength test is conducted to measure resistance against mechanical
fatigue.

·        
Indirect
tensile strength is measured using Marshall stability tester,

·        
Compression
will appear as tension,

·        
The indirect
Tensile strength is calculated as:

 

                                          St=2P/? t D

Where: 

St = Tensile strength (psi)

P = Maximum load (lbs)

t = Sample thickness (inches)

D = Sample diameter (inches)

5.5.4.3 Moisture susceptibility

·        
Resistance
against moisture damage,

·        
Moisture
susceptibility is also measured using Marshall stability tester,

·        
Marshall
Specimen after preparation will be placed in frozen water for six hours and
then will be tested.

          

Fig 13: Marshall Stability Tester                              Fig14: Moisture
damaged HMA

Source: https://www.pavementinteractive.org                         Source:

Pavement Interactive

 

 

                                                                                     

5.5.4.4 Comparison of Conventional and Modified HMA

After
testing of samples, the stability and flow test results found out with
Conventional and Modified HMA will be compared.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.5 Work schedule/plan

5.5.0 Proposed Time Schedule

 

Activity

Nov
 2017

Dec
2017

Jan 2018

Feb
2018

Mar
2018

Apr
2018

Collection of Literature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Study of Literature

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Materials Collection & Physical testing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marshall Mix Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation and testing of Samples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis & Simulation of results

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final Write-up & Thesis Submission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table
7: Work Schedule Plan

 

5.6    Utilization
of research result

On the basis of current
research and relevant literature study, the outcomes of this research will help
in:

·        
Utilization of waste glass/ lime materials in asphalt mixture
production not only to improve performance of asphalt mixtures but also to
reduce environmental pollution.

 

5.7      
Proposed
starting date: November, 2017

5.8      
Expected
date of completion: April, 2018

5.9      
References

1.    Yongjie
Xue, Wenfeng Yang & Shaopeng Wu. “Preparation and Properties of
Glass-asphalt Concrete”. Seventh international conference on the bearing
capacity of road, railways, and airfield, Page# 27-29, June 2005, Trondheim,
Norway.

2.    Y.1SSA.
“Effect of Adding Crushed Glass to Asphalt Mix”. Archives of Civil Engineering,
Vol. LXII, Issue 2, 2016, Fahd Bin Su?tan University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

3.    Olumide
Moses Ogundipe. “Marshall Stability and Flow of Lime-Modified Asphalt
Concrete”. 6th Transport Research Arena, April 18-21, 2016, Ekiti State
University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

4.    EuLA.
“Hydrated Lime: A Proven Additive for Durable Asphalt Pavements”. European Lime
Association, 2010, UK.

5.    Collins
R., J. Lai, Johnson A. and Wu Y.. “Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of
Compacted Asphalt Pavement Analyzer”, Transportation Research Board, January
12-16, 1997, Washington, DC.

6.    Yilmaz
M. and Kok B.V. “The effects of using lime and styrene–butadiene–styrene on
moisture sensitivity resistance of hot mix asphalt”. Construction and Building
Materials 23: (2009), 1999-2006, 2009.

7.    LMA.
“Using New Pavement Design Procedures for Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Modified
with Hydrated Lime”. Technical Brief, 2004.

8.    Shafabakhsh
G.H., Sajed Y. “Investigation of dynamic behavior of hot mix asphalt containing
waste materials; case study: Glass cullet”. Case Studies in Construction
Materials, 96–103. Published by Elsevier Ltd, 2014.

9.    Garba
R. “Permanent Deformation Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures”. Ph.D. Thesis,
2002, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.

10.    Little
N.D. and Epps J.A. “The Benefits of Hydrated Lime In Hot Mix Asphalt”. National
Lime Association, 2001, USA.

11.    Waverley
Council. “Recycled glass in roads” Australian Government, Department of
Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. National Waste
Policy: Case study, 2010, Australia.

12.    Marti,
M. M. and Mielke. “P. E. A. Synthesis of Asphalt Recycling In Minnesota”.
Minnesota Local Road Research Board, Synthesis Report, 2002, USA.

6    
Are
facilities available for the work? Yes

7    
Additional
facilities required (give details) No

8    
Budget
Required

                                                       Budget is not
required as the whole work will be done at SUIT’s lab.

 

9    
Remarks,
if any

 

 

Signature of Candidate & date                                                
                               

 

Recommendation and
Signature of the Supervisor

 

 

Name: Engr.Prof.
Dr .Sher Afzal Khan                   Sign & Date ____________________

Recommendation and
Signature of the Co-supervisor      

 

 

 

Name: Engr.
Fazli Karim                                        Sign & Date ____________________

Recommendation by the members of Graduate
Studies Committee

 

 

 

1.    Name:
____________________________      Sign
& Date ____________________

2.    Name:
____________________________      Sign
& Date ____________________

3.    Name:
____________________________      Sign
& Date ____________________

 

Recommendation and
Signature of Department Chairman

 

 

 

Name: Engr.Prof.
Dr .Sher Afzal Khan                  
Sign & Date ____________________

 

 

 

 

Secretary BOASAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dean                                                                                                                                                 

Faculty of Engineering

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vice Chancellor

SUIT Peshawar

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