2.4 selection of the studies on high performance and

2.4 Empirical Review

An
empirical review refers to the surveying scholarly articles, books,
dissertations, conference proceedings and other resources which are relevant to
a particular issue, area of research, or theory and provides context for a
dissertation by identifying past research. Research tells a story and the
existing literature helps us identify where we are in the story currently. Compiles
significant research published on a topic by accredited scholars and
researchers; Examines contrasting perspectives, theoretical approaches,
methodologies, findings, results, conclusions.
(Shields and Rangarajan, 2013) and (Granello, 2001)

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According
to Peters and Waterman, (1982) and Collins and Porras, (1997), there has been a strong interest in identifying the characteristics of high performance organisations. ”This interest has grown even more because of the rapid changes in the competitive environment of companies, forcing them to adapt faster to growing international demands for flexibility and speed and to compete simultaneously on the basis of development cycle time, price, quality, flexibility, fast and reliable delivery, and after-sales support for their products” (Kasarda and Rondinelli, 1998). ”As a result of the changes in industry and society, governmental agencies are subject to change. They have to reshape themselves rapidly into nimble and flexible organisations which focus attention on the interests of stakeholders”(Zeppou and Sotirakou, 2002; Pollitt, 2003). As a consequence, there has been an increase of literature describing high performance frameworks and the characteristics of high performance organisations in recent years. This study is founded on the high performance organisations framework, developed by the author in previous studies (de Waal, 2007, 2008, 2010), which is based on a descriptive review of 290 studies on excellence and high performance, and a worldwide survey. High performance organisations are in this framework defined as organisations that achieve results both financial and non-financial which are better than those of their peer group over a period of time of at least five to ten years (de
Waal, 2008).

”The previous high performance organisations research by Waal was done in two phases. The first phase, descriptive literature review, consisted of selection of the studies on high performance and excellence that were to be included in the research. The selection criteria were that the study should (1) specifically aim at identifying high performance organisations factors or best practices; (2) consist of either a survey with a sufficiently large number of respondents, so that its results could be assumed to be (fairly) generic, or of in depth case studies of several companies, so that the results were at least valid for more than one organisation; (3) employ triangulation by using more than one research method (e.g. a questionnaire and interviews) (Jack and Raturi, 2006); and (4) include written documentation containing an account and justification of the research method, research approach and selection of the research population, a clear analysis, and clear retraceable conclusions and results so that the quality of the research method could be assessed. For the literature search, the business Source premier, Emerald and Science Direct databases were reviewed, and Google was also used to look for relevant sources. Search words used were: high performance, excellence, high performing organisations, high performance managers, high performance workforce, accountable organisation, adaptive enterprise, agile corporation, agile virtual enterprise, democratic enterprise, flexible organisation, high performance work system, high reliability organisation, intelligent enterprise, real time enterprise, resilient organisation, responsive organisation, robust organisation, and sustainable organisation. In addition, books were reviewed, most of these from the business and management fields. The literature search was conducted in 2017. Based on the four search criteria, the literature search yielded 290 publications which satisfied the criteria wholly or partly. The publications were divided into three categories: (a) Publications describing studies which satisfied all four criteria. These studies formed the basis for identifying high performance organisations characteristics; (b) Publications describing studies which satisfied criteria 1 and 2, but not criterion 3 and criterion 4 only partly. The research approach seemed (fairly) thorough, yet no clear description and justification of the method used was mentioned. These studies provided additional input for identifying the high performance organisations characteristics; (C) Publications describing studies which basically satisfied criteria 1 and 2, but not criteria 3 and 4. No basis was therefore present for generalizing the study findings. These studies could be used to illustrate the high performance organisations characteristics identified in categories A and B.

The
absence of quality control measures and the lack of a national qualifications
framework do not help to quickly address and solve this issue.The effectiveness
problem of the institutions is furthermore augmented by a lack of skills in
information and communication technology and research experiences (de waal and
Chachage, 2009). The educational side of the institutions also suffers from a
multitude of problems, amongs which are under-qualified and unmotivated
teachers, inadequate or lack of teaching and learning materials, poor
infrastructure, out of date curriculum and lack of management skills at various
levels

With
all these issues to deal with, it is no wonder managers in Tanzanian education institutions
are increasingly looking for ways to improve the performance of their institutions
(Saint, 2009).

The
research described that the HPO framework can be used to assess the strength
and improvement progress of an educational institution. Combined with
interviews and workshops, the framework also provides information on the
improvement points the educational institution needs to work at. In this
respect, the HPOframework may help a university to focus on what is really
important to improve and thereby fosters the improvement process. The research shows
that the quality of management and the quality of the dialogue process are of
paramount importance for a successful transition to HPO and therefore the implementation
of modern management techniques deserves the utmost attention (Makkar et al.,
2008).

From
these previous studies we can summarize by saying that, the importance of
incoporating five factors of high performance organization framework to school
plans and strategies can facilitate to improve student’ academic achievement.
Any school that wants students to perform well should have quality management,
quality of workforce, continuous improvement and renewal, long-term commitment
as well as openess and action orientation. The application of HPOframework
characteristics provide the school management with intergrity and knowlegde on
planning and development of different plans and projects established in school.
The five factors will be tested in this respect to see if the catholic schools
perform well due to the application of HPO characteristics in planning and
management. 

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