1. KINDS OF RAW
the best quality of iron ore, having black colour. It contains about 72% of
iron content; very few impurities are mixed with it. It is commonly found in
Igneous and Metamorphic rock’s areas. The best example of Magnetite ore is of
Kiruna and Gelivaara in Sweden,
which contain about 68% of iron content.
the second best quality having reddish colour. It contains about 60% to 70%
iron content. Mostly found in areas of Igneous and Metamorphic rocks, or
sometimes it is seen into lime-stone areas. It is most prevalent iron ore. This
ore is common in U.S.A., Russia & India.
third quality of iron ore is known as Limonite. It contains yellowish to brown
colours. The Iron content which it possess are about 50%. The ore is found in France and Germany
lowest quality of Iron ore. It contains 30% to 40% of Iron content. This ore
has various varieties and colours ranging from ashgray to brown. This ore Is
found, Cleveland, In England,
and Newfoundland in U.S.A.
2. DIFFERENT PROJECTS OF THERMAL ELECTRICITY
Tarbela Hydel Project
This is the largest Hydel project of Pakistan. This
multi purpose project has been constructed at Tarbela on River Indus. Tarbela
dam is situated about 30 miles from Attock in Hazara District of NWFP. The
construction of this dam started in 1968 & completed in 1978. This dam is 9
thousand feet long and 485 feet wide at about 400 feet height. This is one of
the largest earth and rock filled dams in the world. A reservoir about 50 miles
long has been constructed behind the dam, which has a storage capacity of 11.1
million acre feet and it is hoped that about 2.1 million K.Ws. of electricity
can be generated when all the units are installed. Up to June 2000 WAPDA has
installed 14 units & about 3478 M.Ws. of which electricity is being
Mangla Hydel Project
This is the second multi-purpose project of our country. It
has been built under Indus
Basin Treaty mainly for
irrigational purposes. This dam had been constructed at Mangla on River Jhelum
about 20 miles away from the city of Jhelum.
The dam is about 11,000 feet long and 380 feet high. A reservoir lake of about
40 miles long has been constructed behind the dam, having a storage capacity at
its present height of 555 million acre feet. The design of the dam provides for
a future increase of 49 feet in height which will increase the storage capacity
to about 9.6 million acre feet.
In this beginning 3 electric generating units had been
installed and 300 M.W. electricity. WAPDA has installed 8 electric generating
units here and program is underway to set Unit No. 9 and 10 Now 800 M.W. of
electricity is being produced at this project.
Warsak Hydel Project
This is third multipurpose project of our country. The work
on this project began in 1952, and it was completed with Canadian Assistance in
1960 and inaugurated by the President of Pakistan in January, 1961. The dam
has been built on River Kabul at Warsak about 20
miles away from Peshawar.
The dam is 750 ft. long & 235 feet high creating a lake about twenty six
miles long with an average width of 1000 feet. The power house is being
supplied water through a 717 feet long power tunnel. Four units of electricity
generators have been set-up here and each unit produces 40,000 kW. electricity
and now total 160 MW electricity is produced here. Approximately 20,000 acre
land is brought under cultivation by using water of project. WAPDA has set-up 6
electricity producing units on this project, which are producing 240 M.W.
Rasul Hydel Project
This is the fourth Hydel project of our country. The work on
this project had started before the establishment of Pakistan and it was completed in
1951. A fall of 81-85, feet high between the upper and lower Jhelum Canals near
Rasul has been built. At present about 22,000 kW. of electricity is being
produced from this project. This project is providing electric power for
various industrial and commercial areas of Faisalbad water logged areas of
Sheikhupura in the Province
of Punjab. It is also
providing power for over 2200 tube wells constructed for the reclamation of
water logged area in scrap No. 2 Rachna-Doab.
Malakand Hydel Project
This is the oldest Hydel project of Pakistan. It was completed in 1938,
before the creation of Pakistan.
It had been built on River Swat, power is being generated from a fall on the Upper Swat
Canal and the power
station is at Jabban. Originally this project had an installed capacity of
about 10.7 MW, however in 1951 its capacity had been raised up to 20 M.W. This
project is providing power for the industrial, commercial and domestic areas of
Mardan districts in NWFP. From all the above mentioned projects, in the province of NWFP at Bannu on river Kurram. Karam
Garhi, river Indus near Taunsa and near Gilgit on river Hunza, some quantity of
electricity is being produced.
Besides this many canals of the Punjab e g at Upper Chenab
in Nandipur, at Lower Chenab at Chichoki-Mallan, Canal Upper
Jhelum Shadiwal near Gujrat, were small quantity of electricity is
3. MANGLA DAM
The Mangla Dam: Under the Indus Basin Treaty this is
the second largest multi-purpose project designed to control and conserve the
flood water of the Jhelum for use mainly as replacement irrigation supplies for
the areas which was the served by the three eastern rivers. On the Jhelum river
near the village of Mangla, about two miles up-stream from the regulator
of the Upper Jhelum
Canal and about 20 miles from Jhelum town, a dam of the embankment type has been built.
The dam has crest length of about 11,000 feet and its height is 380 feet. The
reservoir created by the dam is about 40 miles long, having a storage capacity
of 5.5 million acre feet. It is the second largest earth filled dams of our
country. The project is providing 400,000 Kilowatts of electricity and 88 lakhs
acre feet water for irrigation purposes. The design of the dam has a provision
for future extension. Its height can be increased about 99 feet and storage
capacity can also be increased upto 9.6 million acre feet and electricity
generated can also be increased from the present 400,000 kW. to one million
Kilowatts. The Mangla lake has been developed as a fishing center and a health
& tourist resort. This project was completed in 1967.
4. The Tarbela
This is one of the largest earth and rock filled dam in the
world. This dam has been built on river Indus
at Tarbela 15 miles from Haripur and 30 miles from Attock. This is also a
multipurpose project. The dam has a gross storage capacity of 11.1 million acre
feet. It is 9,000 feet long and 485 feet high. A 50 mile long lake has been
built behind it.
It will provide 21 lakh Kilowatts of electricity and 93 lakh
acre feet of water for irrigation when completed. Its construction started in
1968 under Indus Basin Treaty, and the dam was completed
in 1974. The installation of 10 units of electricity has been completed in
1985. There is a proposal for the Tarbela project that 2 large off-channel
reservoirs will have to be built to increase storage and lengthen the life of
the generating facilities, since silting is expected to reduce the life of main
dam. Water from Tarbela will be used in the Haro and Soan Basins,
and for replacement the supplies will be diverted to the Chashma Jhelum link
canal and thence to the Trimmu-Sidhnai-Mailsi-Bahawal link system. This project
will help other barrages to retain the supply of water.
5. PROBLEM OF
Electricity in Pakistan is obtained from thermal
power produced by oil, gas and coal, hydel power (produced by running water)
and nuclear power. In 2000-01, the contribution of thermal power was 70 per
cent, hydel power, 29 per cent and nuclear power, one per cent. Up to 1990-91
hydel power was the major contributor. That year hydel power provided 53.1 per
cent of the total production of energy, and thermal power contributed 46.9 per
The demand for electricity in Pakistan is rapidly increasing.
Since WAPDA failed to meet the using demand for electricity. It dedicated to
purchase electricity from private companies. Today a number of private
companies are selling power to WAPDA. KAPCO and HUBCO are the largest and most
important. WAPDA purchases electricity at an exorbitant price and this has put
WAPDA and the consumer under heavy financial pressure.
In view of this situation WAPDA prepared a 25-year plan of
power development called Vision 2025. The plan is to change the contribution
ratio of thermal: hydel power from 70:30 to 30:70. This is in the interest of
the country, because hydel power is cheaper, and Pakistan is endowed with an
exploitable hydropower potential of 40,000 MW.
Vision 2025 plans to develop 23,000 MW of hydroelectricity.
On a priority basis fourteen projects have been approved for implementation
within five years. Ten of them are in the NWFP, one in Punjab
and three in Azad Kashmir. They will together add 2700 MW of electricity. In
addition, the feasibility of a number of projects has been undertaken and will
be completed soon.
Pakistan possesses a large potential for hydel power, which
provides cheap electricity. Its development is in the national interest, but it
is beset by a number of problems:
of the potential sites are located in remote areas.
streams do not maintain a constant flow for the generation of electricity.
electricity will have to be transmitted a long distance before it can be
6. Agriculture problems in Pakistan
70% population of our country get livelihood directly or indirectly from
agriculture and this sector is facing the following innumerable problems:
1. Water Logging and
Logging and Salinity are the challenge to our agriculture. Due to these reasons
the surrounding areas of canals are becoming useless. It is estimated that
every year more than one lakh acre is becoming unproductive due to water
logging and salinity.
second most important problem are the floods which Pakistan has to face every year
and standing crops are destroyed due to floods and cause erosion also. The
problem of flood and its consequences have been overcome to a some extent,
however, to eradicate if completely long term projects are required.