1. held in South Korea. While this news information

1.    
STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM

Recently, a Dutch skater of Indian origin won the
2018 winter games held in South Korea. While this news information maybe
uninteresting to most people, what is interesting is that that girl would
probably have never reached where she is if she were not adopted by a dutch
couple at the age of 8 months. There are many such examples that are present
all around us. However, a new international study has foun2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMRecently, a Dutch skater of Indian origin won the 2018 winter games held in South Korea. While this news information maybe uninteresting to most people, what is interesting is that that girl would probably have never reached where she is if she were not adopted by a dutch couple at the age of 8 months. There are many such examples that are present all around us. However, a new international study has found that of 20 million orphans only 20,000 children were adopted in the last four years. In the year 2016-2017 (April’16 to March’17), 3210 adoptions were in-country and 578 were inter-country. This number has been reducing at an alarming rate over the past 5 years. This research aims to address the problem that is not only of children being denied growing in a family and getting access to opportunities that would be otherwise unavailable and inaccessible but of countless parents that are childless.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY In the past decade, studies have found that the rate of “in country “adoptions has decreased by 47%. This essentially means that note Indian born children are adopted by foreign parent than by Indian parents. While this is not necessarily a bad thing, it indicates that the present population between the ages of around 25-45 years is not very open to the concept of adoption. This study aims at finding out the understanding level and opinions of the youth aged 20-30 years, that is, the youth who are younger than the minimum age to adopt, as well as within the age at which you can adopt. Thus, this study is unique as it addresses the next generation of parents who can adopt a child. The study is also unique as it also involves understanding the laws related to adoption and also studies the various government efforts to encourage and promote adoption especially “in country” adoption. 4. DISCUSS ETHICAL CONCERNS AND HOW THEY WILL BE ADDRESSED • Ensuring the identity of the respondents is kept confidential. ? To ensure this, no personal details of the respondents will be taken except for their age, and the educational background; since that is a criterion for the research.• When borrowing quotes or data from online websites or books, due credit will be given to the original author. ? To ensure this, a bibliography index will be added at the end and also, footnotes and cross reference notes will be added. • The participants/respondents will not be forced into the research but will only be chosen if they are willing participants. • Permissions from colleges and offices, if and when needed will be taken following the correct channels and administrative procedures. • The entire process of the research will be conducted without any bias or prejudice towards the subject and the respondents. ? To ensure this, the respondent’s name, sex, caste, religion etc will not be asked on enquired about during the research.5. REVIEW OF LITERATURE • Adoption: Facts and Fallacies by M.L. Kellmer PringleA review of research in the United States, Canada and Great Britain between 1948 and 1965 based on adoption. • Sociology of Adoption by Elfreeda MominAdoption connotes the establishment of a socially constructed and legally sanctified parent-child relationship between those who do not share this biologically. As a universal custom, adoption has existed across large parts of the world since ancient times. However, cultural norms and practices related to it vary from society to society. Though there is a substantial and growing literature on adoption in Western countries, there is a virtual dearth of systematic, comprehensive, and empirically-based studies on the subject in India. Much of the existing literature on adoption in India remains sketchy and fragmentary. This book is the first full-length, empirical sociological study of adoption in India. It considers adoption as a dynamic phenomenon and views the complexities, challenges, and problems associated with it in a holistic perspective. The study focuses on the social, familial, and psychological problems and challenges faced by the adoptive parents before, during, and after the decision to adopt a child, and on post-adoption services and counselling provided by adoption agencies and non-governmental organizations.• Adoption and Foster Care by The Indian Council of Social Welfare• Child Adoption in the Modern World by Margaret KornitzerThe greater part of this book, concerns present practices with detailed description of legal procedures in Great Britain. About one-third of the book discusses adoptive practices in other parts of the British Commonwealth, and brief reference is made to the situation in other countries. The book also discusses in a small extent the situation in the United States. There is also some discussion about the problems of adoption in general, the process of selection of adoptive parents, the decision and the process of telling the child, the unadoptable child, and so on. • Indian Youth: Processes of Socialization by M.S. Gore.• Manual of Adoption This is the Dashboard of individual agencies describing complete information about Children available in Home, Pre-Adoption Foster Care, and Children Available for Adoption, Waiting for NOC, Waiting for CWC Clearance, Special Needs Children. Further, it also shows the data of Parents Waiting List under In-Country and Inter-Country.• Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s); by the CARINGS and CARA guidelinesThis is a compilation of a list of frequently asked questions about adoption in India, the laws that govern and influence the adoption process and also the process of adoption. 6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study being conducted will cover:• The knowledge and understanding level of the Indian youth in Pune city about adoption• The definition and meaning of adoption in the international as well as Indian context• The statistics of worldwide adoption and in comparison the adoptions in India. • The comparison of the number of Indian children adopted internationally and in India• The current status of adoption in India• The pre conceptions and misunderstandings about adoption in the minds of the youth • The acceptance level towards adoption as a method of child rearing • The acceptance level towards adopted children• The evolution of the various adoption laws, namely o The Hindu adoption act o Guardians and wards acto CARA guidelines o CARINGS7. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY• To study the definition of adoption in the Indian context. • To understand the history of adoption in India.• To compare the adoption statistics around the world; the number of children adopted and, the birth nation they are adopted from. • To find out the knowledge and understanding of the present day youth about adoption. • To understand the adoption laws and see their evolution over a period of time up until the present day.  • To find out the acceptance level from the youth about adoption and adopted kids. • To find out if the present generation gives thought to “uncommon” social issues such as adoption and foster care. • To find out if that government makes any efforts to educate and encourage adoption in the general public but also specifically amongst the youth. • Finding out if the youth is open to other forms of child care such as fostering and sponsorship. 8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How much knowledge does the present youth aged 20-30 years have about adoption?• How many famous people or people who have achieved something great been adopted?• What are the myths and superstitions around adoption in the Indian context?• Is adoption promoted by the government as a means of rearing children and having a family life?• Ho w many youth in Pune city are aware about various orphanages and child homes in and around the city?• What are the preconceptions about adoption?• What is the attitude of the youth towards adoption and adopted children’s?• Is today youth willing to adopt children?• What are the changes that have been made in the laws to promote adoption?9. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS• Youth: For the purpose of this study, “youth” is defined as:? any person who is in between the ages of 20 and 30, either college going or working or both, and living in Pune city for atleast 10 years. • Knowledge : For the purpose of this study, “knowledge” is defined as:? the fact or condition of knowing about adoption, familiarity  with its meaning and also the laws, gained either through direct personal experience(for example: knowing someone who is adopted) or through other sources. ? 1b: the fact or condition of being aware about adoption as an alternate means of child rearing. ? 1c: the range of information about adoption, i.e., how much knowledge. • Understanding : For the purpose of this study, “Understanding” is defined as:? the level of comprehension about what adoption is, based on the knowledge about adoption.? an agreement of opinion or feeling about adoption and all that it involves.• Opinion: For the purpose of this study, “Opinion” is defined as:? An expressed personal view or judgment on and about adoption. The beliefs or views of a group or majority of people.? Expressed belief either for or against adoption as a means to rear children.• Adoption: 1: Adoption is the act of taking something on as your own. 2: Adoption usually refers to the legal process of becoming a non-biological parent.3: to take by choice into a relationship; especially: to take voluntarily (a child of other parents) as one’s own child4: a legal proceding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood; the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents 10. ANALYSIS PLAN• Statistics that are available online as well as in books will be compared. • The statistics that will be analysed and studied are:? International and national adoption rates? Rate of Indian children that are adopted internationally and nationally? Rate of girl and boy children adopted internationally and nationally? International as well as national average age of adopting parents.11. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY a. Research design• Qualitative • Descriptive b. Research method• Qualitative research• Interview• Statistical analysisc. Methods and techniques to draw samples:Probability sampling: Simple random sampling. 1-2 colleges, (most probably Fergusson College and KInSS) will be chosen to draw samples as required. Student Strength of Fergusson College Senior Section: 4550. Student Strength of KInSS: 130. The required criteria for the purpose of this research will be met in a large scale in both the above mentioned places.12. SAMPLING DESIGN a. Universe• Youth aged 20-30 in Pune city, either studying or working in Pune. b. Sample size30 required respondents consisting of youth aged 20-30 years.13. SOURCES OF DATAa. Primary sources• Questionnaire • Interviewb. Secondary sources• Books  • Research papers• Official statistics• Government reports• Web information• Historical data• Laws and acts c. Methods of data collection • Questionnaire• Interviews 14. Tool(s) for data collection. • Interview Scheduled that of 20 million orphans only 20,000 children were adopted in the last
four years. In the year 2016-2017 (April’16 to March’17), 3210 adoptions were
in-country and 578 were inter-country. This number has been reducing at an
alarming rate over the past 5 years.

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This research aims to
address the problem that is not only of children being denied growing in a
family and getting access to opportunities that would be otherwise unavailable
and inaccessible but of countless parents that are childless.

 

2.    
SIGNIFICANCE OF
THE STUDY

In the past
decade, studies have found that the rate of “in country “adoptions has
decreased by 47%. This essentially means that note Indian born children are
adopted by foreign parent than by Indian parents. While this is not necessarily
a bad thing, it indicates that the present population between the ages of
around 25-45 years is not very open to the concept of adoption.

This study aims
at finding out the understanding level and opinions of the youth aged 20-30
years, that is, the youth who are younger than the minimum age to adopt, as
well as within the age at which you can adopt. Thus, this study is unique as it
addresses the next generation of parents who can adopt a child.

The study is also
unique as it also involves understanding the laws related to adoption and also
studies the various government efforts to encourage and promote adoption
especially “in country” adoption.

 

3.    
DISCUSS ETHICAL
CONCERNS AND HOW THEY WILL BE ADDRESSED

·       
Ensuring the identity of the respondents is kept
confidential.

–      
To ensure this, no personal details of the respondents
will be taken except for their age, and the educational background; since that is a criterion
for the research.

·       
When borrowing quotes or data from online websites or
books, due credit will be given to the original author.

–      
To ensure this, a bibliography index will be added at the
end and also, footnotes and cross reference notes will be added.

·       
The participants/respondents will not be forced into the
research but will only be chosen if they are willing participants.

·       
Permissions from colleges and offices, if and when needed
will be taken following the correct channels and administrative procedures.

·       
The entire process of the research will be conducted
without any bias or prejudice towards the subject and the respondents.

–      
To ensure this, the respondent’s name, sex, caste,
religion etc will not be asked on enquired about during the research.

 

4.    
REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

 

·       
Adoption: Facts
and Fallacies by M.L. Kellmer Pringle

A review of research in the
United States, Canada and Great Britain between 1948 and 1965 based on
adoption.

 

·       
Sociology of
Adoption by Elfreeda Momin

Adoption connotes the establishment of a socially constructed
and legally sanctified parent-child relationship between those who do not share
this biologically. As a universal custom, adoption has existed across large
parts of the world since ancient times. However, cultural norms and practices
related to it vary from society to society. Though there is a substantial and
growing literature on adoption in Western countries, there is a virtual dearth
of systematic, comprehensive, and empirically-based studies on the subject in
India. Much of the existing literature on adoption in India remains sketchy and
fragmentary. This book is the first full-length, empirical sociological study
of adoption in India. It considers adoption as a dynamic phenomenon and views
the complexities, challenges, and problems associated with it in a holistic
perspective. The study focuses on the social, familial, and psychological
problems and challenges faced by the adoptive parents before, during, and after
the decision to adopt a child, and on post-adoption services and counselling
provided by adoption agencies and non-governmental organizations.

 

·       
Adoption and
Foster Care by The Indian Council of Social Welfare

 

·       
Child Adoption in
the Modern World by Margaret Kornitzer

The greater part of this book, concerns present practices with detailed
description of legal procedures in Great Britain. About one-third of the book
discusses adoptive practices in other parts of the British Commonwealth, and
brief reference is made to the situation in other countries. The book also
discusses in a small extent the situation in the United States. There is also
some discussion about the problems of adoption in general, the process of
selection of adoptive parents, the decision and the process of telling the
child, the unadoptable child, and so on.

 

·       
Indian Youth:
Processes of Socialization by M.S. Gore.

 

·       
Manual of
Adoption

This is
the Dashboard of individual agencies describing complete information about
Children available in Home, Pre-Adoption Foster Care, and Children Available
for Adoption, Waiting for NOC, Waiting for CWC Clearance, Special Needs
Children. Further, it also shows the data of Parents Waiting List under
In-Country and Inter-Country.

 

 

 

·       
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s); by the CARINGS and CARA
guidelines

This is a
compilation of a list of frequently asked questions about adoption in India,
the laws that govern and influence the adoption process and also the process of
adoption.

 

 

 

 

5.    
SCOPE OF THE
STUDY

The study being
conducted will cover:

 

·       
The knowledge and
understanding level of the Indian youth in Pune city about adoption

·       
The definition
and meaning of adoption in the international as well as Indian context

·       
The statistics of
worldwide adoption and in comparison the adoptions in India.

·       
The comparison of
the number of Indian children adopted internationally and in India

·       
The current
status of adoption in India

·       
The pre
conceptions and misunderstandings about adoption in the minds of the youth

·       
The acceptance
level towards adoption as a method of child rearing

·       
The acceptance
level towards adopted children

·       
The evolution of
the various adoption laws, namely

o  
The Hindu
adoption act

o  
Guardians and
wards act

o  
CARA guidelines

o  
CARINGS

 

 

 

6.    
OBJECTIVES OF THE
STUDY

 

·       
To study the
definition of adoption in the Indian context.

·       
To understand the
history of adoption in India.

·       
To compare the
adoption statistics around the world; the number of children adopted and, the
birth nation they are adopted from.

·       
To find out the
knowledge and understanding of the present day youth about adoption.

·       
To understand the
adoption laws and see their evolution over a period of time up until the
present day. 

·       
To find out the
acceptance level from the youth about adoption and adopted kids.

·       
To find out if
the present generation gives thought to “uncommon” social issues such as
adoption and foster care.

·       
To find out if
that government makes any efforts to educate and encourage adoption in the
general public but also specifically amongst the youth.

·       
Finding out if
the youth is open to other forms of child care such as fostering and
sponsorship.

 

7.    
RESEARCH
QUESTIONS

·       
How much
knowledge does the present youth aged 20-30 years have about adoption?

·       
How many famous people or people who have achieved something
great been adopted?

·       
What are the myths and superstitions around adoption in
the Indian context?

·       
Is adoption promoted by the government as a means of
rearing children and having a family life?

·       
Ho w many youth in Pune city are aware about various orphanages
and child homes in and around the city?

·       
What are the
preconceptions about adoption?

·       
What is the
attitude of the youth towards adoption and adopted children’s?

·       
Is today youth
willing to adopt children?

·       
What are the
changes that have been made in the laws to promote adoption?

 

 

8.    
OPERATIONAL
DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS

·       
Youth: For the purpose of this
study, “youth” is defined as:

–      
any person who is in between the ages of 20 and 30,
either college going or working or both, and living in Pune city for atleast 10
years.

 

·    
Knowledge : For the purpose of this study, “knowledge” is
defined as:

–    
the fact or condition of knowing about adoption,
familiarity  with its meaning and also
the laws, gained either through direct personal experience(for example: knowing
someone who is adopted) or through other sources.

–    
1b: the fact or condition of being aware about adoption
as an alternate means of child rearing. 

–      
1c: the range of information about adoption, i.e., how
much knowledge.

 

·       
Understanding : For the purpose of this study,
“Understanding” is defined as:

–      
the level of comprehension about what adoption is, based
on the knowledge about adoption.

–      
an agreement of opinion
or feeling about adoption and all that it involves.

 

·       
Opinion: For the purpose of this study, “Opinion” is defined as:

 

–     An expressed personal view or judgment on and about
adoption. The beliefs or views of a group or majority of people.

–      
Expressed belief
either for or against adoption as a means to rear children.

 

 

·       
Adoption: 1: Adoption is
the act of taking something on as your own. 

2: Adoption usually refers to the legal process of
becoming a non-biological parent.

3: to take by choice into
a relationship; especially: to take voluntarily (a child of other parents) as one’s own child

4: a legal proceding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood; the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents 

 

 

9.    
 ANALYSIS PLAN

·       
Statistics that
are available online as well as in books will be compared.

·       
The statistics
that will be analysed and studied are:

–       International and national adoption rates

–       Rate of Indian children that are adopted internationally and
nationally

–       Rate of girl and boy children adopted internationally and
nationally

–       International as well as national average age of adopting parents.

 

 

10.                       
 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

a.    
Research design

·       
Qualitative

·       
Descriptive

 

b.    
Research method

·       
Qualitative
research

·       
Interview

·       
Statistical analysis

 

c.      Methods and techniques to
draw samples:

Probability
sampling: Simple random sampling.

1-2
colleges, (most probably Fergusson College and KInSS) will be chosen to draw
samples as required.

Student
Strength of Fergusson College Senior Section: 4550.

Student
Strength of KInSS: 130.

The
required criteria for the purpose of this research will be met in a large scale
in both the above mentioned places.

 

 

11.                       
 SAMPLING DESIGN

a.     Universe

·       
Youth aged 20-30 in Pune city, either studying or working
in Pune.

 

 

b.     Sample size

30 required respondents
consisting of youth aged 20-30 years.

 

12.                       
 SOURCES OF DATA

 

a.    
Primary sources

·       
Questionnaire

·       
Interview

 

 

b.    
Secondary sources

·       
Books 

·       
Research papers

·       
Official
statistics

·       
Government
reports

·       
Web information

·       
Historical data

·       
Laws and acts

 

c.     
Methods of data
collection

·       
Questionnaire

·       
Interviews

 

13.                       
 Tool(s) for data collection.

·       
Interview
Schedule

 

x

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