1-Ethics and wrong behaviors if they related to well-being.


1-Ethics In a broad of Context:

1.1. The Meaning of Ethics:

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     Based on its original concept, ethics is a
discipline of philosophy that is evaluate and analyses human behavior.  However, the definitions and concepts related
to ethics has been changing over time and among ethicists for instance,
Aristoltle defined it as the manner that lead to happiness; on the other hand,
a philosopher     called Kent believed
that ethics is having a freedom to be dealt with dignity and able to think
rationally. Furthermore, from a philosophical view, ethics is a methodology
that analyzes and differentiates of right and wrong behaviors if they related
to well-being. Moreover, ethics are considered as an energetic manner so forth,
feeling and emotion play crucial role in applying daily ethical activity. Even
though, people occasionally allow their feelings to go beyond their ethics.
Therefore, it has been suggested that people usually rely on their own culture
and connect their actions about what they believed (Butts and Rich, 2012)


1.2. Major
Area of Ethics:

       Nowadays philosophers especially
those belong to academic affairs have divided the ethical theories into three areas; metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. On
the one hand, Meta-Ethics is
concerning the origin and nature of ethics including; manners, declarations, attitudes,
and judgment and the possibility of either support them or defending them
(Philosophybasics.com, 2017). Secondly; normative ethics which is involves in
standardization morals that control the right and faults. Finally, applied ethics which is considered as a branch that evaluate the debated
moral issue such as animal rights (Iep.utm.edu,


2- Importance of Ethical Approval:

       To undertake a research which concerning ethical
issues such as human participants, it is imperative to obtain ethical approval (University, 2017). Moreover, scholars and
researchers   have to consider ethical
approval by aiming to approach two areas; the first one is the right of
participant weather students or patients and to be treated properly and to agreement fully to taking the chance.  Secondly, must
conduct a scientific and valuable research which contribute to develop
different disciplines such as education or medicine. Organizations are progressively more aware that staff, students and
patients can no longer be provender for investigation a research. This ethical attitude
is placed within a legal structure that comprises the Human Rights Act and Records
Protection Act. Sensitive issues such as the retaining of organs in a hospital highlighted
the importance of considering an ethical methodology to all features of patient
contribution in research. Any research that involves NHS patients, potential
patients or staff essentials to have been arranged by local ethical committee
(LEC) approval (Faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk,


3- Case study 1.

report of a PhD research project – An exploration of the experiences of mothers who have a premature baby:

      There has been a study that was monitored and assessed
by Central Manchester NHS Foundation Trust and has found many violations regarding ethical issues and particularly the
enlisting of participant. Moreover, the deviation was in the ethical approval
protocols which has stated that the participant should be interviewed and
identified at delivery unit at St Mary’s Hospital.
However, there has been a breach by interviewing candidates outside the unite
and sometimes even outside the hospital at the candidate’s homes. Furthermore,
the ethical approval was concerning the recruitment of mothers of
premature babies, however, some cases has deviated to interview fathers.  

3.1. discussion:

         From the case mentioned above, there were
many violations of the ethical approval even though the search follows the
reason for its adaptation because the applicant is a student. Therefore, theses
breaches contribute to sensitive risks  including  psychological
issue or discomfort or stress to the participant for instance
meeting fathers at home while the approval has stated that the interviews
should at the hospital and specifically at the unite, but breaking these roles
without consent of ethical committee and also risks
to the participant’s personal social status, privacy among the family gaining
information from one of the parent that the mother wouldn’t say it might
destroy the family while taking these information from fathers, personal morals
and beliefs, personal relationships(Bps.org.uk,
2017). Finally, protocol deviations,
intentional or otherwise may conduct data that are less accurate, dependable,
or trustworthy. Attention must be taken to define them and avoid them as extremely
as possible. These could lead to a research with poor findings that has crucial
impact on literature, physicians, hospitals, and scientific papers. The issue
is most vulnerable since protocol deviations are associated with increased
risks of treatment failure and general mortality (Ohri
et al., 2012).


There are
numerous consequences of the violation of research ethics rules. One major
effect of this approach is the occurrence of psychiatric cases between
volunteers, and that is totally unacceptable. An example of that is the case,
which is mentioned in the former discussion. As a result, such unethical
practice might prevent people from participating as volunteers in any research.
Another complication could normally result from deviated research practice is the
increasing of restrictions on researches from the authorities. Moreover,
unethical research practice might lead to lose the interest and reliance of the
public in research. Therefore, research organizations will not have either adequate
support nor fund from government and other authorities. finally, research
ethics protocols are a substantial issue of a research, because it protects the
researchers, participants and sponsors (Faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk,