1.0 safety & health at work of his employees.

1.0 INTRODUCTIONPrinciples and Important of Safe Handling of Forklift.This report is produce for the case study on Fatality case involving the ForkliftAccording to OSH Act 1994, act 514 under section 15 – “General Duties of Employers and self-employed person to their employees” it is the duty of every employer and self-employed person to ensure so far as is practicable to the safety, health and welfare at work of all his employees. This act mention the duty of employers to the employees which it will be the basic principle in this study case whereby the compliance to the act. It is also the duty of the employers to ensure all the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work are in order, including the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervision as is necessary to ensure, so far as is practicable in ensuring the safety & health at work of his employees. In the context of the important of safe handling of forklift is to ensure the all necessary precaution is taken by providing such information, training, instruction or safe working procedure in aiming of safe working environment.  The important of safe handling of Forklift can be reflected by producing the Safe Work Procedure or Safe Work Instruction as required by legal requirement under OSH Act 1994 – Act 514. The Safety procedures also can help decrease the number of workplace incidents.Therefore the Safe Handling of Forklift can lead to;• Compliance to Legal Requirement• Decreasing the number of workplace incident• Providing safe working environment• Save unwanted cost from accident              2.0 CASE STUDY ANALYSIS Overview of Case Studies of: Fatal Accident involving forklift.a. Synopsis of an Accidentb. Description of Accidentc. Key Finding / Observationd. Learning PointSynopsis of an Accident-• Workplace Premise: Logistic Warehouse• Forklift: 2.5ton (Load Capacity)• Work Activity:  – Unloading finish good from customer                         – Transferring goods to storage racking system                          – Loading finish good to be deliver to customer• Nature of Accident: Hit by moving machinery – a serious accident involving a                                                  forklift  and a lorry driver                                Description of an Accident-• The forklift performing unloading finish good and transfer to storage racking system and the lorry driver was standing nearby during the task is carried out and the lorry driver was hit by the moving forklift.Key Finding / Observation-• Lack of supervision while the forklift in operation• Lack of Hazard or Risk information at the warehouse • No designated waiting area for the lorry driver to waitLearning Point-• Importance of conducting risk assessment to identify and implement control measures which include proper safe work procedure for forklift operations.• Importance of supervision while machinery are in operation• Importance of Hazard and Risk information at the work area   3.0 NOTIFICATION TO THE AUTHORITIESWhenever there is any incident, accident, dangerous occurrences, occupational poisoning or occupational disease, the regulation that need to be referred in notifying the authorities specially Department of Occupational Safety & Health will be always NADOOPOD Regulation under OSH Act 1994.The notification and reporting of any incident are going through the notification form that issue out by Department of Occupational Safety and Health which is :• JKKP 6 – Report for Occupational Accident / Dangerous Occurrence(appendix 1)• JKKP 7 – Notification of Occupational Poisoning or Disease (appendix 2)And the data for the accident can be found on JKKP 9 (appendix 3) and the data to be filling up for Occupational Poisoning or Disease can be found in the JKKP 10 (appendix 4) form.In this case study which is involving fatality the form that used for the notification will be the JKKP 6 (Refer to appendix X) whereby the incident involving occupational accident and the data to be filling up can be found in the JKKP 9 form.In order to ensure the effectiveness in notifying the Department of Occupational Safety and Health in standard format of reporting Department of Occupational Safety and Health has come out with guideline on how to filling up the above stated form in the Department of Occupational Safety and Health Website. Web Reference – (http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/form-download/nadopod-1/guidelines-for-filling-up-the-form)The notification and reporting to Department of Occupational Safety & Health  has a specific time line. Whenever any incident arising out of or in connection with work which caused any person either death or serious body injury which prevent the person from following his normal occupation for more than four calendar days or where a dangerous occurrence takes place in any place of work, the employer shall forthwith notify the nearest Department of Occupational Safety & Health office by the quickest means available and within the 7 days a report must be sent out.       4.0 COSTING IN THE ACCIDENTMost organisations do not know what accidents and ill-health really cost them in time and money. Few bother to examine costs if and when they investigate accidents and incidents.It is often assumed that most accident and incident costs are recoverable through insurance. This is a dangerous misconception. Some of uninsured costs can include:• Lost time• Sick pay• Damage or loss of product and raw materials• Repairs to plant and equipment• Extra wages, overtime working and temporary labour• Production delays• Investigation time• Fines by authorities • Loss of contracts• Legal costs.Accident and ill-health costs can be likened to an iceberg: costs that are recoverable are visible but those that are unrecoverable are hidden below the waterline and are many times greater.Other key points to consider• Losing key personnel due to injury or ill-health can be critical to meeting contract deadlines• In smaller organisations which have little reserve capacity, a serious accident or an incident such as fire can spell the end of the business altogether• Loss of business reputation due to accidents and enforcement action can lead to loss of new or repeat business or loss of new investment• Accidents can damage workforce morale and affect productivity• Serious accidents leading to injury may be rare but minor incidents leading to costly damage are happening much of the timeAs the case study estimation cost due to the Accident involving forklift and the death of the lorry driver, can be divided into two different cost which is Direct Cost and Indirect Cost.Direct Cost can be defined as those costs that are accrued directly from the accident. They are quite easy to calculate, and include the medical costs incurred and the compensation payments made to the injured workers. Direct costs are usually insurable by businesses. For this case study the direct cost that can be identified is;• Damage of the property• Damage of the goods  • Compensation Payment • Fines by Authorities < Rm 50000.00 (section 19, OSHA 1994)For the Indirect costs are the less obvious consequences of an accident that can be calculatedin estimating the cost that incurred. The indirect cost that can be identified including:• Time away from the job not covered by workers compensation insurance• Payment of other workers who are not injured, for example those who stopped work to look after or help the injured worker and those who require output from the injured in order to complete their tasks• The cost of damage to materials or equipment involved in the accident• The cost of overtime imposed by the accident (lost production, additional supervision, and additional heat, light.• The cost of wages paid to the supervisor for time spent on activities related to the accident. This includes investigating the accident, and supervising the activities necessary to resume the operation of business. All of these activities will disrupt the supervisor's productivity• Costs associated with instructing, training, and repositioning employees in order to resume production. In some cases, it might even be necessary to hire a replacement with all the associated hiring costs• Medical costs paid by the employer that are not covered by the insurance. This may include treatment facilities, personnel, equipment and supplies• Cost of managers and clerical personnel investigating and processing claim forms and related paperwork, telephone calls, interviews• Wage costs due to decreased productivity once the injured employee returns to work. This is due to restricted movement or nervousness/cautiousness on the part of the injured employee and time spent discussing the accident with other employees.• Costs brought about from any enforcement action following the accident such as prosecution fines and costs of imposed remedial works.As for the estimation of cost, the total cost of an accident can be calculated by using the OSH Accident Cost Calculator or OSHACC that invented by Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). Web Reference: (http://oshacc.dosh.gov.my/)  5.0 PREVENTION AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM In order to managing safety and health at worksite, the Safety and Health policy must be established as the commitment from the top management in managing safety and health as stated in OSH Act 1995, Act 514 section 16 – Duty to formulate safety and health policy. Then the safety and health management plan need to be established as the procedure, safe work instruction need to be relevant and compatible at the worksite.Hazard identification, Risk assessment and Risk control is one of the best method or relevant method that can be used in order to analyse and to prevent any incident happen. Web Reference: (www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/legislation/guidelines/hirarc-2) The hazard has been identified and the risk of the hazard will be assess and the control measure will be justified base on the hierarchy of control which is Elimination, Substitution, Isolation, Engineering Control, Administration control, and the least effective control measure yet required is Personal Protective Equipment. For example the incident happen between the forklift and the lorry driver, one of the Hazards that can be identified is hit by moving vehicle which is the forklift. Therefore the control measure of the hazard can beanalysing through the hierarchy of control and implemented in order to prevent incident from happen. Then, from the HIRARC the improvement program also can be plan such as:• Work Area Inspection program (Part iv – Section 15)• Forklift Safe Working Procedure training (Part iv – Section 15 (a) )• Risk and Hazard Information training (Part iv - Section 15 (c) )The prevention and improvement program also can be established by providing safe working instruction or safe working procedure, and in this case study it is for the safe working procedure in handling forklift. Inside the procedure the roles and responsibility of the operator, inspector, supervisor and workers will be brief, and how to work safely according to the procedure also will be brief. The existing hazard due to the scope of work will be list and the control measure to be taken will be stated for action. Here is sample safe work procedure that can be used as a improvement program to ensure the prevention of the incident.Safe Handling Forklift ProcedurePURPOSE The purpose of the Safe Work Procedure is to detail measures that reduce the safety and health risks associated with the plant and machinery movement inside the warehouse. This procedure provides the method of in implementation of safe handling forklift procedure during all phases process inside the warehouse.SCOPEIt is applicable to the whole area of warehouse.DEFINITIONSMachineryMachinery such as forklift, truck lorryDOSHDepartment of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, MalaysiaRESPONSIBILITIESWarehouse Managera) The Warehouse Manager shall ensure full compliance with the requirement of this procedureSupervisorThe supervisor shall ensure:a) Adequate supervision while operation.b) Assessment the hazards and implement the control measures.c) Inform the workers on the requirement of this procedure.Employeesa) Cooperate with the supervisor to ensure compliance of the instruction.b) Do not interfere or misuse the safety measures that had been placed.   PROCEDURES1. Operators must be qualified• Operating forklifts should only be done by individuals who have been trained properly or contain a licence to operate the equipment.2. Appropriate clothing must be worn.• It needs to be ensured that operators wear the appropriate safety work wear; usually consisting of a hard hat, safety shoes and hi-visibility jackets.• The work wear must be reasonably fitted as any loose clothing can get caught on machinery. • Don't operate or hold any of the controls when your hands have grease on them it may cause them to slide off and cause an accident.3. Examine Equipment before use• Operators should do a routine check of the equipment before driving them.  Some things you should check for any faults are brakes, steering, controls, warning devices, and tyres. • If there are any noted damages or problems management should be notified and the forklift should not be operated if it needs to be repaired.• Always consider the 'journey's end' of a load before picking it up.  A convenient position of a load from pick up may not be convenient for stacking.4. Starting up the forklift• Before starting the forklift it's important to ensure all the equipment's controls are in reach and the seat position and mirrors are adjusted to the operator's needs.• The operator should not start the forklift until they are correctly seated with their safety belt fastened and all parts of their body are safely inside the confines of the operatorscabin or the forklift.5. Consider the surrounding environment• Whilst operating a forklift operator must pay attention and follow any work site rules and guidelines.• The operator must only drive the equipment in the machinery's designated roadways.• Observe all signs, especially those on maximum permitted floor loadings and clearance heights.• Be aware of the height of the load, mast and overhead guard of the forklift when entering or exiting buildings.• Be careful when operating a forklift near the edge of a loading dock or ramp - the forklift can fall over the edge - keep a safe distance from the edge.• Do not operate on bridge plates, unless they can support the weight of the forklift and load.6. Operate at a safe speed• Never proceed past the speed limit.• Take corners and any turns slowly to minimise risk of tipping. • Make any changes in direction or any stops gradually and slowly.7. Avoid Hazards• Steer clear of any bumps or uneven ground surfaces along with slippery conditions.• Steer clear of loose ground objects which could cause loss of control over the equipment or a load to move around. • Use the horn when closing in on a corner or doorway/entrance and around people to alert pedestrians or other forklift operators of your whereabouts to avoid any unnecessary collision. • Keep a safe distance from other trucks in case they move in an unpredictable manner.• Make sure that you always have enough space to stop safely.8. Ensure your load is stable and secure• Check the loads carefully before moving them for stability and damage.• It is important to ensure that the load is tilted back with the forks sitting low whilst transporting in order to increase truck stability.• Check for any overhead objects before lifting or stacking loads.• Do not lift or move loads that are not safe or stable.• Make sure loads are correctly stacked and positioned across both forks.• Stack the load on the pallet or skid safely and correctly.• Use securing measures such as ropes or bindings if required.9. Make sure you have clear visibility• Operate the forklift in reverse when it improves visibility; except when moving up ramps.• It is important to make sure you can see the racking clearly in which you are positioning your load. • If visibility is poor do not continue driving; in some circumstances you may need a lookout helper to assist you. 10. Forklifts are for Carrying Loads only• Operators must not let others ride on the equipment unless another seat is fitted safely to the forklift for a second person.• If a person has to be lifted, use only a securely attached work platform and cage and follow the appropriate operating instructions. 11. Keep Clear of the Mast• Do not authorise anyone to stand or walk under the load or forklift machinery - The load can fall causing injury or death.• Keep hands and feet clear of the cross members of the mast - Serious injury can be caused if the mast is lowered while your hand is on it.12. Driving on Ramps• When driving up ramps' move in a forward direction and down ramps in reverse, especially while carrying loads.• Do not load or unload goods or turn whilst on a ramp.13. Ensure the forklift is not Over-loaded• Do not use the tip of the forks as a lever to raise a heavy load.• Do not push a load with the tip of the forks.• Know the capacity of your forklift and any attachments being used and never exceed this capacity.• An overload can cause the rear tyres to be raised off the ground and may cause the forklift to tip over.14. Ensure the Load is evenly distributed• Do not lift or move a load unless both forks are fully under the load.• Do not lift a load with one fork. Use pallets and skids that can withstand the weight of the load.• Do not use damaged, deformed or decayed pallets for holding loads.15. Refuelling• A forklift should only be refuelled at specially designated locations.• Switch off the forklift.• For Diesel engine forklifts, no open flame or sparks are permitted, and refuelling should take place in a well-ventilated area.16. When the Shift Ends• After use ensure the forklift is parked in a designated or authorised area.• Fully lower the forks to the floor and apply the park brake.• Turn the forklift "off" and remove the key.• Do not leave a forklift running whilst unattended.     6.0 CONCLUSIONThe conclusion that we can conclude is, accident is never cheap as a lot of cost involve in the accident either direct or indirect cost. The most effective way is prevention as per discussion on the topic above there is a few item that can be considered in managing safety and health at work place. As a norm accident at workplaces can result injuries, loss of life and properties damage. Both the person involved in accident and the employer may lose their income or profit due to extra costs incurred and increasing of various types of expenses in company operation. Accident costs normally are higher than most people expected because of the indirect cost or hidden costs incurred. These costs should be avoided by reducing accident rates through implementation of an effective safety and health program in preventing accident in the workplace. Other benefits include reduced absenteeism, lower turnover and higher productivity of the company. Estimates of the costs to employers could, therefore, motivate and increase their awareness to act and to reduce accident rate. There for safe working procedure is very important to ensure compliance, to provide safe working environment and one of the methods of prevention.                   ?Appendix XAppendix 1Appendix 2Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 4-cont.Appendix 4-cont.Appendix 47.0 REFERENCESBooks1. Occupational Safety & Health Act 1994, Act 514 of Malaysia (MDC Publishers Sdn Bhd)2. Factory and Machinery Act with Regulations 1969, Act 139 of Malaysia (MDC Publisher Sdn Bhd)Web1. www.dosh.gov.my2. http://www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/form-download/nadopod-1/guidelines-for-filling-up-the-form3. http://oshacc.dosh.gov.my/4. www.dosh.gov.my/index.php/en/legislation/guidelines/hirarc-2