¨History of Pentecostalism
¨The modern day
Pentecostalism began rising in the late 19th century in Topeka, Kansas at Bethel Bible College.
¨The college director
who is also a minister, Charles Fox Parham was influenced by this holiness
his students—many of whom already were ministers—to pray, fast, study the
Scriptures, and, like the Apostles, await the blessings of the Holy
¨Pentecosts follow the Holy
Bible which is the scripture in what they live by on a everyday basis
¨They believe in the
Baptism in the Holy Spirit (speaking in tongues)
¨History of Umbanda
¨What influenced Umbanda is Afro-Brazilian Religions,
Indigenous, Catholicism, and Spiritism
¨Umbanda is a religon which incorperates africian religons with catholicism
¨Some of its beliefs and practises exsisted during the 19th
century, but many assume that it “originated from Rio de Janeiro in the early
20th century” as it states in
¨Pentecostalism is a
monotheistic religion, Pentecost’s believe in One God who’ s name is
¨Pentecostals hold to
the core doctrines of the Trinity, the deity of Jesus Christ, and the belief
that the Bible is the Word of God. Also like other Christians, they believe the
Holy Spirit is the divine, third person of the Trinity, coequal to the Father
and Son, who the ascended Jesus sent on the day of Pentecost as recorded in
¨They believe in
divine healing, healing that comes from Godà but not all pentecosts believe or follow
divine healing, it is not mandatory
¨It is based on how
much faith you have in God
¨Believers believe in
a supreme deity who is called Olorum (or Zambi), who represents himself in various representations.
¨They also believe
that various Catholic saints release energies and forces which are called Orixas.
¨A common belief of
theirs is that they solicit with the deceased.
¨They also believe in
karma and reincarnation
¨Umbanda Central Myths
¨The altars may have
images of Christ, the guide, our lady, saints (St Lazarus, St George, SS Cosmas and Damian etc.
¨Women play a big
typically led by the women.
¨”mothers of the holy
¨They train future
¨3 Major types of
¨Baptism is a ritual
practise followed by Pentecostal Christians
1.Baptism in the Body
Believers made apart of Jesus’ Body
à full body immersion in water
1.Spirit Baptism is
also another form of baptism
à Which is the anointing of the holy spirit for
practices include: anointing with oil for installation (appointment of elders
and deacons), for ordination, or for healing; foot-washing
¨Candomle is an oral
tradition hence it does not have a scripture.
¨Sacred places are
called terreiro which means temples. They are basically building with indoor
and outdoor spaces, with special areas for the gods.
their clothes and cleanse themselves before entering holy buildings as a way of
cleaning out their sins.
¨Worshippers go to
temples for many reasons, one being to have their fortunes told. Others go for
months’ time to immerse themselves in the spiritual and to become possessed by
¨Some dance while
worshipping as a way of calling their spirits.
obviously become obvious symbols of rebellion.
¨Rituals and Practices
¨Place of Worship:
¤Pentecost’s worship in a Church
¨Time of Worship:
¤Based on Church’s
¨Practices in the place of worship:
¤A worship session
followed by a sermon where the Pastor teaches the believers religious subjects
and moral values.
foot washing and anointing with oil.” (Markey, 2017)
¨Place of Worship:
¤Umbandans worship in a place
called Terreiro (which means yard) in which they hold their public and private
¨Practices in the place of worship:
¤Umbandans worship through
possessions, which can be categorized into two types – Trance and Obsession.
Trance occurs when there is possession of spirits in a higher level. Obsession
occurs when there is a possession by the spirits of the dark world. The more
common type is the trance possessions. At these sessions, people are dressed in
white and open the ritual by chanting an Umbanda hymn following other esoteric
the sessions, where they are generally dressed in white, they ask questions,
make offerings, teach the lower spirits, ask favors, all of which aim for
material and spiritual healing.”
¤ Umbandans celebrate the
possessions, along with baptism, consecrations, and weddings. Despachos, which means
‘contest’, are celebrated as well. “These despachos that generally happen at the corner of the cross roads
consist of offerings made with foods , candles, cigar, etc.”
¨Types of clothing:
¤Males usually wear
suits/ dress shirts with dress pants. Females tend to wear dresses, skirts and formal clothing like
¨Types of Clothing:
¨”White uniform: in the Umbanda ritual clothing is
always white, always very clean. The white color is the reflective character,
since it is the sum of all colors and functions as a sort of shield against
certain shocks of lesser importance, of the negative energies that are directed
to the medium. It is a soothing color that induces calm and tranquility of the
“Barefoot: shoes are seen as
unsanitary object, as it is depressed with them all, sometimes debris, rots,
etc. Bare feet allow a connection with the Earth element, and a natural outlet
¨”Necklaces: it’s an energy reserve, both positive or negative.
They can be made of natural materials such as stones, pearls, seeds, wood, etc.
The guard takes the positive energies of the Guide and passes them to the
patient. Then take the negative energies of the patient, and passes them to the
Guide.” (Amira, 2015)
¨Pentecostal churchs encourage women to wear modest clothing (Herrington,
¨A division called United Pentecostals have a dress code
for women prohibiting any clothing or jewellery that brings a man to lust.
Excluding their wedding bands and watches (Herrington, n.d)
¨ As mentioned before there is no concept of good or
bad. They believe strongly in karma.
¨Characteristic Emotional Experiences
¨Women dress very modestly not showing any body parts
¨Some females prefer not to cut their hair but it is not
¨Pentecost’s prefer not to be apart of this worldly
¨They dress simply and don’t wear out of date clothing
¨They wear clothing that doesn’t offend other individuals
¨Pentecost’s do not have a concept of sacredness
¨They celebrate Christian Holidays such as Christmas,
Easter and Good Friday
Pentecostals celebrate the day of Pentecost, fifty days after the resurrection
of Jesus, but wary of demarcating a specific time for the presence of the Holy
Spirit, most Pentecostals have moved away from celebrating that day. “(Patheos, n.d)
¨”Pentecostalism’s most vibrant competitor, Umbanda, also
places healing rituals at the center of its practice.”
¨”Umbanda cannot off the type of comprehensive healing
found in Pentecostal church’s.”
¨Both religion’s oppose any sort of use of alcohol
¨Only in Pentecostalism that healing is based 100% on the
core of faith